Benito mussolini

Timeline for Mussolini and Fascist Italy

  • Papal States taken over by new nation of Italy

       Papal States taken over by new nation of Italy
    As the new nation of Italy was forming, leaders also wanted to incorporate the Papal States (Territories of the Church). This image shows where the Papal States were located and in what year they were incorporated into the Kingdom of Italy.
  • Formation of an independent Italy

    Formation of an independent Italy
    The formation of a unified, independent Italy, which occurred after the Risorgimento in 1871, marked a new era of thinking and Italian Nationality. This photo was chosen because these men (mazzini, cavour, and garibaldi) were extremely important in Italian unification.
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    Failure of First Italo-Ethiopian War with the Battle of Adowa (Adwa)

    Done with the hope of boosting Italian prestige, the Kingdom of Italy invaded Ethiopia to colonize. They were met with opposition resulting in the Battle of Adwa which lasted from 1894 to 1896. This image shows the scale and brutality of the battle.
  • Italy invades and takes over Libya

      Italy invades and takes over Libya
    Taking place in September of 1911, the Italian invasion of Libya was once again an attempt to boost prestige and be taken seriously as a Great Power. They were successful and annexed Libya just 2 months after the war began. This image is to show the brutality and side effects of the Italian victory.
  • Mussolini begins work as editor for the Socialist Party newspaper Avanti

      Mussolini begins work as editor for the Socialist Party newspaper Avanti
    In 1912, Mussolini became the editor of the Socialist Party newspaper “Avanti”. Even after going to fight in WW1, Mussolini was widely respected for his role in the paper and was somewhat of a celebrity. This image was chosen to show that Mussolini’s name was directly mentioned in issues of Avanti-- demonstrating his influence over the paper.
  • Mussolini kicked out of Socialist Party for pro-nationalistic sentiments regarding WW I

     Mussolini kicked out of Socialist Party for pro-nationalistic sentiments regarding WW I
    In 1914 Mussolini was kicked out of the Socialist Party because he wanted intervention in the war while the party’s stance was one of neutrality. This was also a shock because it was a complete change in his previous sentiments. This image shows the cover of “Il Popolo d’Italia”, the newspaper Mussolini created after expulsion from the PSI.
  • Treaty of London

        Treaty of London
    This was a secret agreement 1915 to bring in Italy to the side of the Ally Power. Italy was promised lots of land to expand its region. The importance of the picture is the territory that Italy was supposed to gain as a result of the war however they did not receive most of the land.
  • Fascio di Combattimento formed in Milan

    Fascio di Combattimento formed in Milan
    The Fascio di Combattimento otherwise known as the Facist were formed in Milan in March 1919. The picture represents their symbol saying that they are combined together.
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    Beginning of Biennio Rosso

    This event took place from 1919-1920 which were intense social conflicts of Italy during the time after the war. The importance of the picture is to represent the group of people who were associated with the conflicts.
  • D’Annunzio takes Fiume

     D’Annunzio takes Fiume
    Gabriel D’Annunzio takes Fimue on September 12 1919. The picture represents the people who were a part of the event
  • Mussolini forms alliance with Giolitti

      Mussolini forms alliance with Giolitti
    In 1921, Giolitti founded the National Blocs and the Italian Fases that were led by Mussolini. This photo is one of Giolitti.
  • Mussolini forms the PNF (Fascist Party) and is elected its leader

    Mussolini forms the PNF (Fascist Party) and is elected its leader
    On November 9th 1921, Mussolini founded the Fascist Party. He wanted to seek legitimacy within Italy however didn't get many seats as a result of it. With the implementation of the Acerbo Law, Mussolini got his credibility and was elected as the leader. This picture is the flag of the PNF
  • March on Rome and Mussolini becomes Prime Minister

    March on Rome and Mussolini becomes Prime Minister
    In October of 1922, the fascist party grouped up with all of its members and stormed the Italian capital of Rome in an attempt to consolidate power from the Italian government. This marks the official beginning of Mussolini’s reign as the leader of Italy and would change the course of Italy for years to come. This photo represents how many people were involved in this insurrection showing the amount of support that Mussolini and the Fascist party had during the time of Mussolini’s first attempt.
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    Battle for Births Italy

    The battle was another economic battle that happened in Fascist Italy. It hoped to increase the population of Italy.
  • Acerbo Law passed

     Acerbo Law passed
    The Acerbo Law, passed in November of 1923, was a law created by Baron Acerbo which made it so the party with the majority of the votes in the elections received two-thirds of the seats in Italy's parliament. This was created to help promote the Fascist party and Mussolini, as their popularity in Italian politics bolstered them into power. This is a photo of Baron Acerbo, who was responsible for creating the Acerbo law.
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    Corfu Incident

    The Corfu incident took place between August and September of 1923. When Italians were attempting to form international boundaries, Italian soldiers were murdered on the Greek island of Corfu. This led to Mussolini sending a fleet of naval ships to the island after Greece refused to pay for the people they killed.
  • Matteotti Crisis

    Matteotti Crisis
    After a socialist political figure, Giacomo Matteotti was killed by people involved with the Fascist party, the Liberal party of Italy threatened the Fascist party as a whole. They threatened to overtake the Fascist party as leader of Italy, however, this was a failure, as the attempt only led to absolute power for Mussolini. This is a political cartoon created during this time, which represents the Liberal point of view in the situation.
  • Aventine Secession

     Aventine Secession
    In 1924, any parliamentary opposition during the time officially withdrew from the Italian government, giving total power to the Fascist party and Mussolini. This was done in order to show the hatred for Mussolini, but this only led to Mussolini becoming an absolute dictator in Italy. This is a photo of Giacomo Matteotti, which was the main reason for the departure of all other parties in the Italian government.
  • Battle for Grain

      Battle for Grain
    The battle for Grain is an economic policy by the fascists of Italy put in place in the 1920s. The policy aims to boost the production of grain, lower the necessity for bread imports, and show that Italy is a super power.
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    Battle for Land and Battle for the Lira

    The Battle was an economic policy by the fascists in Italy in the 1920s to attempt to raise the ideas of Italy being a great power in the world. It aimed to reduce inflation and confirm an idea of fascism bringing stability.
  • Locarno Treaty signed

     Locarno Treaty signed
    The Locarno Treaty was created in 1925, which created peace in western Europe after the tragedy of WWI. This was created mostly to secure borders in this part of Europe, and create peace between France and Germany after their disputes in WWI. This photo displays the many world leaders discussing the terms of the treaty that would eventually create short-term peace in Europe.
  • Kellogg-Briand Treaty signed

     Kellogg-Briand Treaty signed
    The pact was signed on August 27, 1928, and was an agreement to outlaw war in order to prevent another world war. It was unsuccessful and did not stop the rising militarism.
  • Lateran Treaty with Pope

    Lateran Treaty with Pope
    Was a part of the Lateran Pacts of 1929 that hoped to recognize Italy as a state independent with Rome as its capital. In return, Italy would recognize sovereignty to the Vatican City.
  • Abyssinian Crisis

      Abyssinian Crisis
    An international crisis in 1934 between the nation of Italy and the Empire of Ethiopia, in which Italy invaded Abyssinia which is now Ethiopia. They both pursued provocation between each other.
  • Stresa Front

    Stresa Front
    It was an alliance between Britain, Italy, and France that was agreed upon on April 14th, 1935. They met and discussed their concerns over Germany.
  • Italian involvement with Spanish Civil War

    Italian involvement with Spanish Civil War
    Italy had military intervention within Spain during the Spanish Civil War this was to give support to the Nationalist cause against the second Spanish Republic.
  • Rome-Berlin Axis Treaty signed

     Rome-Berlin Axis Treaty signed
    The Rome-Berlin Axis coalition was formed in 1936 which was an agreement and military alliance made by Italy’s former prime minister Galezza Ciano which linked the two countries of Italy and Germany on October 25, 1936
  • Munich Conference

      Munich Conference
    A settlement between the countries of Germany, Great Britain, France, and Italy allowed the German Annexation of Sudetenland in western Czechoslovakia.
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    Italy invades Albania

    A military campaign that caused conflict between Italy and Albania was the result of the Imperialist policies that were put in place by Mussolini as the Ruler of Albania was overran and forced to exile in Greece.
  • Mussolini brought down by coup during WW II

    Mussolini brought down by coup during WW II
    Benito Mussolini is voted out of power by the Grand Council and is arrested when he is leaving a meeting with King Vittorio Emanuele.
  • Italy enters WW II on side of German

     Italy enters WW II on side of German
    Italy decides to ally with Germany in the Tripartite Pact which is an agreement that included the counters of Germany Italy and Japan which was signed in September 1940 which had the goal to deter the US from joining the war/
  • Mussolini killed

    Mussolini killed
    Mussolini and Clara Petacci, who was his mistress, were shot by Italian partisans who captured the couple as they were seen trying to escape to Switzerland.