Mussolini and Fascist Italy

  • Formation of Independent italy

    Formation of Independent italy
    This was when Italy became an independent nation from Austria. Began with unification of most of peninsula under Piedmont-Sardinia into Kingdom of Italy I chose this image because it refers to Italy as the Kingdom of Italy and what it looked like when Italy formed
  • Papal States taken over by new nation of Italy

    Papal States taken over by new nation of Italy
    Papal States taken over; this resulted in Catholic hostility against the Italian kingdom, lasted into early 20th century I chose this image because it shows a distinction between the papal states that were annexed in 1860, and the ones that were annexed in 1870
  • Failure of First Italo-Ethiopian War with the Battle of Adowa (Adwa)

     Failure of First Italo-Ethiopian War with the Battle of Adowa (Adwa)
    This battle was lost in 1896 and was seen by many Italians as a terrible national humiliation I chose this image because it is an illustration of the battle of Adwa and shows how many people there were involved.
  • Italy invades and takes over Libya

    Italy invades and takes over Libya
    Invaded the Turkish colony of Libya to try to increase size of Italian empire/ block growing French influence in North Africa. Turkey accepts its loss in 1912. I chose this image because it states that Libya became an Italian colony after it was taken from the Turks
  • Mussolini begins work as editor for the Socialist Party newspaper Avanti

    Mussolini begins work as editor for the Socialist Party newspaper Avanti
    His articles advocated for revolutionary violence against liberal state. He helped expel reformists from Socialist Party. I chose this image because it shows an excerpt from the newspaper that Mussolini had edited.
  • Mussolini kicked out of Socialist Party for pro-nationalistic sentiments regarding WWI

    Mussolini kicked out of Socialist Party for pro-nationalistic sentiments regarding WWI
    Mussolini was kicked out of the Socialist Party for pro-nationalistic sentiments. He was kicked out shorts after establishing his own newspaper called “il Popolo d’italia to campaign in favor of the war I chose this image because it shows a person being "kicked out" of a place, similar to how Mussolini was removed from the socialist party for his ideology
  • Treaty of London

    Treaty of London
    This brought Italy into WW1 and led to post-war inflation. This treaty promised to grant Italians the land they sought: southern TYrol, northern Dalmatia, Trieste, and other territories. However, Italy did not receive all of this land I chose this image because it shows what the land of Italy would look like if the promised areas were given to Italy
  • Beginning of Biennio Rosso

    Beginning of Biennio Rosso
    As unemployment rose, workers began militant action seen with strikes, land occupations, and factory occupations organized by peasant leagues and trade unions. Involved 1,000,000+ workers across Italy I chose the image because it portrays armed workers occupying factories in Milan
  • Fascio di Combattimento formed in Milan

    Fascio di Combattimento formed in Milan
    Founding members became known as Fascists of the First Hour. Goal was to bring together nationalists and socialist - the unifying aspect was hatred of liberal state. I chose this image because it shows the image that represented the Fasci Italiani di Combattimento
  • D'Annunzio takes Fiume

    D'Annunzio takes Fiume
    D’Annunzio led 2000 men to take control of Fiume - in defiance of Italian gov/ allies - and rule the city for next 15 months. Fiume was one of the cities Italy sought to control but did not win in treaties. This made D’Annunzio into a hero for nationalists. I chose this image because it depicts the Italians with their flag in Fiume, even though they were not supposed to be there
  • Mussolini forms alliance with Giolitti

    Mussolini forms alliance with Giolitti
    Giolitti offered Mussolini an electoral alliance - an anti-socialist National Bloc - but the socialists remained the largest party during the 1921 May elections. The fascists were able to hold positions in parliament = image of respectability. I chose this image because it is a picture of Giolitti, who offered Mussolini the electoral alliance.
  • Mussolini forms the PNF (Fascist Party) and is elected its leader

    Mussolini forms the PNF (Fascist Party) and is elected its leader
    Mussolini convinced the Fascio di Combattimento members to re-form into the Partito Nazionale Fascista (PNF) in October 1921 and then convinced them to elect him as their leader in November. He did this by promising to end the truce with socialists and organize action squads in return.
    This picture shows Mussolini alongside the Fascist Party of him as he is elected leader.
  • March on Rome and Mussolini becomes Prime Minister

    March on Rome and Mussolini becomes Prime Minister
    Local fascist leaders planned to seize power. The king refused to begin martial law, conceded his power after listening to Antonio Salandra, and appointed Mussolini as Prime Minister. Mussolini’s success in consolidating power in Italy can be attributed to King Emmanuel III; therefore, his role in this event was highly significant.
    This picture shows the people of Rome marching for Mussolini and how he is going to be promoted as Prime Minister.
  • Acerbo Law Passed

    Acerbo Law Passed
    Giacomo Acerbo proposed the Acerbo Law - the party who won 25% or greater of the vote would gain two-thirds of the seats in Parliament. The Acerbo Law gave Mussolini an advantage in the next election by removing the proportional representation system. Acerbo himself was significant in proposing this law for Mussolini.
    This picture shows Acerbo himself as he was a key factor towards the proposition of the Acerbo Law.
  • Corfu Incident

    Corfu Incident
    The Corfu Incident was a 1923 diplomatic and military crisis between Greece and Italy. Italians forming part of an international boundary delegation were murdered on Greek soil, leading Benito Mussolini to order a naval bombardment of Corfu.
    This picture shows the people involved in the corfu incident that made Mussolini a true hero towards this incident.
  • Matteotti Crisis

    Matteotti Crisis
    A political confrontation between liberals and the Fascist government of Italy after the assassination of Giacomo Matteotti, a Socialist opposition deputy, by Fascist thugs in June 1924.
    Matteotti represents all of the struggles that Mussolini was facing towards the maintenance of Power.
  • Aventine Secession

    Aventine Secession
    The Aventine Secession was the withdrawal of the parliament opposition, mainly comprising the Italian Socialist Party, Italian Liberal Party, Italian Popular Party and Italian Communist Party, from the Italian Chamber of Deputies in 1924–25, following the murder of the deputy Giacomo Matteotti by fascists on June 10th, 1924.
    This picture shows how this secession during Mussolini’s rule was named after the people in Ancient Rome.
  • Battle for Grain

    Battle for Grain
    Italy was dealing with poor harvest and a dependence on grain imports. Mussolini launched this campaign in response. The battle was successful in making Italy self-sufficient in wheat production, but created the misallocation of resources. Italy had to rely on olive oil imports instead.
    This picture shows Mussolini finding Grain to be very useful resources wise.
  • Locarno Treaty Signed

    Locarno Treaty Signed
    The Locarno Treaty guaranteed Germany’s western border; Britain and Italy pledged to shut down any aggression on the border. The Locarno Treaty intended to create peace between European countries.
    This picture shows the people involved in part of the Locarno Treaty to end WW1.
  • Battle for Land and Battle for the Lira

    Battle for Land and Battle for the Lira
    In the Battle for Land, marshes and swamps were drained to expand farmland. Small farms and jobs were created, but the Pontine Marshes was the extent of expansion. In the Battle for the Lira. the Lire was revalued to stop increasing prices. Italy could continue importing coal and iron, but exports declined, goods increased in price, and a recession began.
    This picture shows Mussolini helping out at the farm, that shows his values towards Autarchy in Italy.
  • Battle for Births

    Mussolini wanted to increase the population to make a large army for future expansion so he gave incentives for having more children in the Battle for Births. However, birth rates declined and women still made up 1/3 of the workforce; thus, the battle was very unsuccessful.
    This picture shows the kids saying the speech for Mussolini outside an Italian school.
  • Kellogg-Briand Treaty signed

    Kellogg-Briand Treaty signed
    Also referred to as he Pact of Paris, is was one of the many international effects to stop another WW, but ultimately did little to stop rising militarism. It was signed between Germany, France, and the US (and most other states laer). Pact was concluded outside the League of Nations and still is in effect today. It had some successes though: it was the base for trial and execution of Nazi leaders in 1946. However, it had a lack of influence on foreign policiy and had no way of enforcement.
  • Lateran Treaty with Pope

    Treaty between Italy and the Holy See in which three agreements were made. First, full sovereignty of the Holy See in the Vatican City was established. Second, a concordat was created to regulate the Catholic Church and religion in Italy. Third, a financial convention agreed on as a definitive settlement of the claims of the Holy See following the losses of its territories and property.
    This picture shows the Pope with the other Commanders and Prime Ministers.
  • Italian involvement in spanish civil war

    Italian involvement in spanish civil war
    At the meeting Mussolini promised the group of Spanish politicians who opposed the 10,000 rifles, 10,000 hand grenades, 200 machine-guns and a million pesetas in cash in event of a military uprising (that value greatly increased after the war). He gave Nationalist forces military aid.
    Rationale: Picture of Italian propaganda about this event.
  • Stresa Front

    Stresa Front
    Agreement made in Stresa, Italy between French, British and Italian (mussolini) Prime ministers. It was made to reaffirm the Locarno Treaties and to agree to resist any future attempt by Germans to change the Treaty of Versailles. Historian Buchanan wrote that it was the most important attempt to stop Hitler before WW2. This agreement broke down 3 months after it was made after the ITALIAN INVASION OF ABYSSINIA.
    Rationale: Picture of the countries in agreement.
  • Abyssinian Crisis

    Abyssinian Crisis
    Also known as the Second Italo-Ethiopian War. Started with 200k Italian soldiers led by Marshal De Bono attacking Eritrea. Prime example of axis powers’ expansionist policies. Ended around Feb 1937.
    Rationale: This is a picture of the invasion.
  • Rome-Berlin Axis Treaty signed

    Rome-Berlin Axis Treaty signed
    A coalition formed between Italy and Germany which linked the two countries, which was formulated by Italy’s foreign minister Galeazzo Ciano. It was formulated by the Pact of Steel in 1939.
    Rationale: Picture depicting the agreement made between Hitler and Mussolini.
  • Munich Conference

    Munich Conference
    Agreement made between Germany, Britain, France, and Italy that allowed Germany to annex Sudetenland (western Czechoslovakia)
    Rationale: A picture of all who were at the agreement.
  • Italy invades in albania.

    Italy invades in albania.
    Taken over in 5 days, it was a result of Italy’s imperialist policies, which caused Albania to leave the League of Nations, merging with the Italian Foreign Ministry and crowning Victor Emmanuel III King of Albanians.
    Rationale: Picture of invasion plan.
  • Italy enters WWII on side of Germany

    Italy enters WWII on side of Germany
    Italy joined Germany in hope to gain the land they did not get in WWI.
    Rationale: Depiction of Italy with Germany in war.
  • Mussolini brought down by coup during ww2

    Mussolini brought down by coup during ww2
    Sicilian invasion led to the fall of the Fascist regime and Mussolini’s rule. Much of the territories fell to Germany.
    Rationale: Newspaper reporting of the event.
  • Mussolini dead

    Mussolini dead
    Mussolini was killed in the village of Guilino di Mezzegra in North Italy when he was executed by an Italian partisan.
    Rationale: Picture of the village location.