The twentieth century

  • The Labour Party was formally established

    The Labour Party was formally established
    Its beginnings dated from 1874, as part of the trade union movement.
  • Period: to

    The First World War

    Aug 1914-Britain declared the war when German troops broke into Belgium's neutrality
    1914-the french and british army were fortunate to hold back the german army at the River Marne
    1 July 1916-Britain attacked German positions on the River Somme
    1916-the battle of Jutland-Admiral Jellicoe drove the german fleet back into harbour
    1917-at Passchendaele the British army advanced 5 miles
  • The "Easter Rising"

    The "Easter Rising"
    The republicans, who want full independence, rebelled in Dublin. It was quickly put down and most irish dissaproved of it.
  • The right to vote for some women (1930 over)

    The right to vote for some women (1930 over)
    1) john Stuart Mill had tried unsuccessfully to include votes for women in the 1867 Reform Bill.
    2) the "suffragettes" - women who treated men as they treated them
    3) During the war women took men 's places in the factories
    4) Women started to wear lighter clothing, shorter hair and skirts, began to smoke and drink openly
  • The treaty of Versailles

    The treaty of Versailles
    So, Germany lost colonies, coal mines territories and paid $32 bln as reparations
  • The Anglo-Irish Treaty

    The Anglo-Irish Treaty
    1) Southern Ireland was independence, but Northern Ireland should remain united with Britain. So, Irelan was divided.
    2) It led to civil war between the Irish themselves.
    3) By this treaty the new "Irish Free State" accepted continued British use of certain ports, the sovereignty of the British Crown, and the loss of Northern Ireland.
  • The first Labour government was created

    The first Labour government was created
    The Labour Party was not "socialist". Its leaders wanted to develop a kind of socialism.
  • The Liberal Party completely disappeared

    The Liberal Party completely disappeared
    Liberals with traditional capitalist ideas on the economy joined
    the Conservative Party, while most Liberal "reformers" joined the Labour Party.
  • Plaid Cymry - the party of "fellow countrymen"

    Plaid Cymry - the party of "fellow countrymen"
    Plaid Cymry was created in 1925. It was a welsh nationalist party, which became a strong political force in the 1970s. But Welsh nationalism lost suppott in 1979 when the people of Wales turned down the government's offer of limited self-government.
  • Fiana Fail was formed

    Fiana Fail was formed
    The group of the republicans created a new party, which won th election of 1932.
  • The general strike

    The general strike
    It was a coalminers' strike, which ended after nine days, because members worked to keep services like transport, gas and electricity going. It also ended because of uncertainty among the trade union leaders.
  • the 1930s - the British economy started to recover

    the 1930s - the British economy started to recover
    1) A new kind of development depended on Britain's growing motor industry.
    2) Towns had been changed by the building of new homes near the railway
    3) By 1937 British industry was producing weapons, aircraft and equipment for war.
  • Period: to

    The Great depression affected Britain most severely

    1) Over three million workers were unemployed.
    2) The depression in Germany destroyed Britain's second most important market from before the war.
  • On Christmas Day

    On Christmas Day
    George V used the new BBC radio service to speak to all peoples of the Commonwealth and the empire.
  • The Scottish Nationalist Party

    The Scottish Nationalist Party
    The SNP became the second party in Scotland. When Scotland was offered the same limited furm of self-government as Wales, just over half of those who voted supported it. But the government abandoned the self-government offer.
  • George V celebrated his Silver Jubilee

    George V celebrated his Silver Jubilee
    So, he drove through crowded streets of cheering people in the poorest parts of London.
  • The monarcy expierenced a serious crisis

    The monarcy expierenced a serious crisis
    It was happened, because Edward Vlll gave up the throne in order to marry a divorced woman.
  • Southern Ireland was a republic

    Southern Ireland was a republic
    The new Prime Minister, Eamon de Valeta, began to undo the Treaty of 1921 and in 1937 declared southern Ireland a republic.
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    The Second World War

    1) In Sept 1939 Germany invaded Poland, and Britain entered the war.
    2) At Dunkirk the British army was saved by thousands of private boats. - Churchill: "a victory of courage and determination at Britain's darkest hour".
    3) 1940 - the battle of Britain - the British air force won an important battle against German planes in the air over Britain.
    4) 1941- Germany attacked the USSR and Japan attacked the USA - it were mistakes
  • Period: to

    The Second World War

    1) By 1943 the Soviet army was pushing the Germans out of the USSR, and Britain had driven German and Italian troops out of North Africa.
    2) In 1944 Britain and the United States invaded German occupied France. They had already started to bomb German towns.
    3) 6,9 Aug 1945 -The USA and Britain used the new atomic bombs to destroy most of Nagasaki and Hiroshima, two large Japane se cities.
  • The government promissed free secondary education for all

    The government promissed free secondary education for all
  • Iraq was independent

    Iraq was independent
  • Period: to

    The loss of empire

    500 million people in former colonies became completely self-governing. In some countries, like Kenya, Cyprus and Aden, British soldiers fought against local people. Other countries became independent more peacefully.
  • The New National Health Service

    The New National Health Service
    A Labour government brought in a new National Health Service, which gave everyone the right to free medical treatment.
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    The Cold War

    The Cold War was a period of ideological and geopolitical tension between the United States and the Soviet Union
  • The Brittish left India

    The Brittish left India
    It was the result of a growing nationalist movement, skilfully led by Mahatma Gandhi, which successfully disrurbed British rule. India divided into a Hindu stare and a smaller Muslim state called Pakistan.
  • Britain left Palestine

    Britain left Palestine
    It was happened, because it was unable to keep its promises to both the Arab inhabitants and the new Jewish settlers.
  • The National Assistance Act

    The National Assistance Act
    The National Assistance Act provided financial help for the old, the unemployed and those unable to work through sickness. Mothers and children also received help.
  • Ceylon became independent

    Ceylon became independent
  • Period: to

    The Sovier Union tried to capture West Berlin

    As a result of the struggle for West Berlin , opposing alliances were formed: the North Atlantic Treaty Organization of the Western nations, and the Warsaw Pact of the Eastern bloc.
  • Britain became a member of the Council of Europe

    Britain became a member of the Council of Europe
  • Elizabeth ll became queen

    Elizabeth ll became queen
    When Elizabeth 11 became queen, the monarchy has steadily increased in popularity.
  • The first nuclear energy power station in the world was built

    The first nuclear energy power station in the world was built
    Britain's leadership in nuclear power resulted in the development of nuclear weapons. It led to the building of the first nuclear energy power station in the world in 1956.
  • The Suez Crisis

    The Suez Crisis
    Until 1956 Britain had controlled the Suez Canal, but Egypt decided to take it over. Britain attacked Egypt, but the rest of the world disapproved of Britain's action and forced Britain to remove its troops from Egypt.
  • The UK took American "Polaris" nuclear missiles for submarines.

    The UK took American "Polaris" nuclear missiles for submarines.
    The possession of these weapons gave Britain, in the words of one Prime Minister, the right "to sit at the top of the table" with the Superpowers.
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    Nothern Ireland

    1) In 1969, Ulster people began to gather on the streets and
    demand a fairer system.

    2) Republicans who wanted to unite Ireland turned this civil rights movement into a narionalist rebellion against British rule.
    3) British soldiers were sent to help the police and in 1972 the Northern Ireland government was removed and was replaced with direct rule from London.
  • Period: to

    The years of discontent

    Britain suddenly began to slip rapidly behind its European neighbours economically. This was the result of a new and unpleasant experience, a combination of rising prices and growing unemployment.
  • Britain joined the European Community

    Britain joined the European Community
    After becoming a member, Britain 's attitude towards the European Community continued to be unenthusiastic.
  • The Sex Discrimination Act of 1975

    The Sex Discrimination Act of 1975
    It became unlawful to treat women differently from men in matters of employment and pay
  • Margaret Thatcher had been elected

    Margaret Thatcher had been elected
    She was the first woman Prime Minister in Britain. Margarer Thatcher had come to power calling on the nation for hard work, patriotism and self-help. She wanted free trade at home and abroad, individual enterprise and less government economic protection or interference.
  • Britain joined the United States in boycotting the Moscow Olympic

     Britain joined the United States in boycotting the Moscow Olympic
  • A society of "two nations"

    A society of "two nations"
    Thatcher government had created a more unequal society, one wealthy, and the other poor. The division was also geographical, between prosperous suburban areas, and neglected in ner city
    areas of decay.
  • The "Social Democratic Party"

    The "Social Democratic Party"
    Four senior right-wing members left the patty to form their own
    "Social Democratic Party" in 1981, in alliance with the small but surviving Liberal Patty.
    By March 1982 the new "Alliance" was gaining ground both from the
    Conservative and Labour patties.
  • The Falklands war

    The Falklands war
    Britain went to war to take back the Falklands after an Argentinian invasion. In spite of the great distance involved, British forces were able to carry out a rapid recapture of the islands. The operation was very popular in Britain, perhaps because it suggested that Britain was still a world power.
  • In Britain was a clear economic shift towards service industries

    In Britain was a clear economic shift towards service industries
    Britain had become a net importer of manufactured goods.
  • The disaster in Brussels

    The disaster in Brussels
    British football crowds became feared around the world. In 1984 an English crowd was mainly responsible for a disaster in Brussels in which almost forty people were killed.
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    The miners went on strike

    Steel mills and coal mines were closed. In 1984 the miners refused to accept the closing of mines, and went on strike. After a year of violence during which miners fought with the police the strike failed
  • The Hillsborough agreement (the Anglo-Irish agreement)

    The Hillsborough agreement (the Anglo-Irish agreement)
    It was a formal agreement that Britain and Ireland would
    exchange views on Northern Ireland regularly
  • The arrival of immigrants in Britain

    The arrival of immigrants in Britain
    There were about five million recent immigrants and their children out of a total population of about fifty-six million. The immigrants were willing to do dirty or unpopular work, in factories, hospitals and other workplaces.
    The old nineteenth-century city centres in which black immigrants had settled were areas with serious physical and economic problems. In the 1980s bad housing and unemployment led to riots in Liverpool, Bristol and London
  • The election of 1987

    The election of 1987
    The 1987 election brought some comfort, however, to two underrepresented groups. In 1987 this figure more than doubled to forty-one women MPs. Blacks and Asians gained four seats, the largest number they had ever had in Parliament.
  • Rule by Westminster Parliament

    Rule by Westminster Parliament
    In Britain were people who disliked the centralised power of Westminster, which had increased in the Thatcher years.
  • The Channel Tunnel was officially opened

    The Channel Tunnel was officially opened
    The rail tunnel between England and France that runs beneath the English Channel.
  • Hong Kong

    Hong Kong
    The brittish government gave Hong Kong under the leadership of the Chinese rule