Spanish Civil War

  • 1469

    Union of Spain & Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile

    Start of disunity in spain because the rulers failed to assimilate all new regions to establish a sense of shared identity (ei culture and language)
    Most important: Catalonia (the texas of spain)
    --> believed in seperatism and resisted spainish culture
  • Period: 1469 to

    Long Term Causes

    Could also be linked to causes that started during the unification of Spain in 1469
  • Catholic Church

    Since the beginning, the Church as been associated with spanish nationalism, racial purity, and political power.
    EX: Victorices aganist France in Napoleonic Wars/Moors in middle age reconquest
    --> this explains the outrage surronding religious reforms and the decrease of the Church's power in politics and society in 1931
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    Historic Divisons in Spain

    1803-1936: at least 19 coups aganist the government due to various external and internal issues
    1833-1876: Carlists were conservative policatal movement that fought aganist liberals in three seperate civil wars.
    --> liberalism vs. conservative monarchism/traditonal catholicism against liberal ideology
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    Rise of Left

    1880-1890 anarchism increased in popularity and therefore domestic terrorism that was punishable by repression and torture
    EX: at a strike in Alcoy (1873) they spread radical ideas and the police fired on the gathering crowd
    1900: Federation of Workers' Society of the Spanish Region organized strikes but was surpressed
    --> this posed further threat to the state because it challenged authority and set stage for war
  • Wage Cuts

    Resulted in the closure of factories in Barcelona and forced men to fight in the Moroccan war which caused a general strike on July 26th 1909
    specifics: 1700 arrests, attackes on railway lines, and 80 religous insitutions were attacked
    OVERALL caused outrage amongst the poor because they could not support their families during war and the insurrection was put down by government reestablishing the balance of strength and weakness
  • National Confederation of Workers

    CNT founded and worked with the General Workers Union (UGT) to establish a strike in 1917 --> representation of the workers and have nots
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    Post War Unrest

    1919: general strike in Barcelona (more than 100,000 workers)
    1923: military dictatorship by General Primo de Rivera
    --> trade off for more workers rights was the establishment of right wing dictatorship
    1927: Federacion ANarquista Iberica created to prevent ideological disloyalty by the CNT OVERALL shows how economic and political unrest is connected and helped raise tensions to the establishment of the First Republic and the different perspectives on the role of government
  • The Coup

    Military coup led by King and Miguel Prime de Rivera (commander for Catalonian army) which led to a single party state led by the Spanish Patriotic Union
    BUT Prime de Rivera was dismissed by 1930 hence the opportunity for the Second Republic
  • Abdication of Bourbon King Alfonso XIII

    Ruled from 1886 to 1931 as his father ruled before him
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    Short Term Causes

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    Growing Tension in Army due to Reforms

    1. swearing loyatly to government instead of state & reducing domestic military presence
    2. reviewing the actions of the military in Morocco --> this impacted the Africanistas and Juntas Militares (both disliked reform but did not agree on other aspects such as new elite) --> last group was a subset of african.: Foregin Legion led by Franco OVERALL: military stands with church on aganist gov
  • New Consitution/Article 26

    Took power away from Church (ei control over marriage and divorce and tax exepmtion)
    --> mostly angry because they could not teach christian education (article 26)
    -----> limited the historically profound christian presence in spain
  • Esquerra Republicana de Catalunya/Catalonia Independence

    Created because of increased left-wing beleifs and respect for anarchists through 15-1900's
    Led to victory in 1931 election which gave them enough power to call for independence in September of 1932
    ALT PERSP: This was opposed by nationalist rebels in Barcelona
  • Confederacion Espanola de Derechas Autonomas (CEDA)

    Resulted in Church's anger over government reforms and socialist influence
    Successful because after the 1933 elections the CEDA and Jose Maria Gil Robles led a coatlition with the moderate left putting radical reform to a hault
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    Bienio Negro (Two Black Years)

    Name given to the years immediately following the coaitlian with CEDA.
    Reforms were undone and the left wing feared a facist takeover by ignoring the constitution and repressing opposition which did happen
    --> negatively percieved by the left
  • Popular Front

    Reunification of left via the PF ended potiental for religious political influence
    --> linked to international leftist groups like the USSR (which allowed PF members to run for gov in 1934)
    --> nationalist forces were more unified than coatlition
    Right: 124 seats
    Left: 278 seats
  • General Divisions by 1936

    1. Fears of anarchist revolution
    2. army intergrates into politics
    3. unrest in countryside caused seizures of land (encouraged by anarchists)
    4. May: CNT held confrence that heavily discussed revolution --> no one was assured that PF would handle Anarchy and general inablity to control country
  • German Transport Aid

    Franco used German transport to get the Moroccan legion into Spain
    KEY EX of foreign intervention
    Would later recieve aid 70,000 Italian troops and 100 German planes
    --> Republicans only got small amounts of aid from USSR
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    Non-Intervention Committee & League of Nations

    *Useless committee headed by Germany to ensure that none of the countries apart of the LoN were involved in the SCW
    *Not effect but did showcase weaknesses of the LoN
    *Did not deter Germany or Italy which still housed artillery and aircraft in Spain (1937)
  • Death of Jose Calvo Sotelo

    duputy of spanish revival group and was a high-level right wing offical with facists (but was in exile from 31-34) killed by the left
    OVERALL right saw this as an excuse to go to war in retaliation
    resulted in hastily prepared military coup by foreign legion and Generals sanjuro and Mora
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    Nature of War

    *Nationalists had easily restored supplies from their allies Italy and Germany while Republicans only had USSR
    *Republicans had the upper hand in the beginning but slowly lost it and the power shifted hands long before the war was over
    --> mainly due to foreign intervention and leadership
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    Siege of Madrid by Nationalists

    *Nationalists had professional troops v. Republicans had militia volunteers
    *International brigades (communist troops) helped *Republicans hold Madrid
    * Later Franco tries to cut city off from the North in Dec-Jan 1936-37 but loses 30,000 men
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    Battle of Villareal

    • Republican attack on Vitoria (basque troops) but air reconnaissance and better artillery --> nationalists win
    • shows how better technology due to foreign intervention benefited the Nationalists
  • Fall of Malaga

    *Once a Republican city, fell to nationalists and Italians
    * resulted in mass executions and & dramatic drop in Republican moral
    * shows significant consequence that happens when there is a lacking central authority or figurehead
  • Labor Charter

    *Established fundamental right to work but made strikes illegal
    *Shows his ability to control the population and is evidence of reactionary reforms
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    Aragon Front

    • Franco divided up from Aragon to the sea after finishing his northern conquest
    • this was to cut off Republicans from military aid from USSR *change in tactics after being stuck in a war of attrition similar to WWI *shift in favor of the Nationalists
  • Return of Evacuated People

    *After many people fled to Europe and South American some returned
    *they fled because of the violence toward civilians
    *right killed 77000
    *left killed 55000
  • Mujeres Libres

    *founded in 1936 and led by Lucia Sanchez Saornil and Amparo Poch
    *focused on giving more power to women
    --> getting jobs and fighting
    *Nationalist victory ended hopes for reform (1939)
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    Effects of War

    Historian: Paul Preston argues that Franco unleashed a hell of oppression on Spain with killings, rapes, labour camps, etc. This could be countered as Franco could be similar to Hitler, like the ‘Cult of Franco’ that took Fraco’s words to extreme.
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    Short Term Effects

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    White Terror

    *Time of political pursecution of former Republicans (even though many of them were killed during war)
    *both sides killed (right killed 77000 & left 55000) but violence continued in this era
    *compare to RCW and pursecution of Whites after end
  • Fall of Madrid

    *In the final moments, there were extreme tensions amoung the left between communists and anarchists
    * Not helped when Franco took Barcelona and Catalonia
  • Blue Division

    *Sent 18,000 men (volunteers) to help Germany fight russia from 1941-1943
    *no actual alliance signed by Spain and Axis Powers
    ---> allowed Spain to pled innocent after WWII and they weren't blamed
  • Law or Cortes

    *Established parliament but was ineffective as it only included people appointed by Franco
    * Gave illusion of a constitutional government
    *Franco established his legitmacy to rule through cult of Caudillo (similar to that of other leaders)
    *Expanded with Refrenda years later
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    Long Term Effects

  • Refrenda Law

    *Built on concept of Law of Cortes, which only gives parliament right to vote on things allowed by Franco
  • Economic Consequences

    *wages = 60% of 1936 levels
    *Spain did not benefit from Marshall's plan
    *poor quality of life due to consequences of war
  • Pact of Madrid

    *Agreement meant to break isolation of Spain after WWII
    *necessary w/ Cold War looming
    *under civil state status the US gave Franco money for being anti-communist
    *start of Ten year plan to gain autarky by increasing tourism
    ---> able to work because Spain was not destroyed in WWII and the American dollar was the most valuable currency in the world a the time
  • Economic Modernization

    *US encouraged investments and relaxed tarifs
    *Saw significant growth in 1960
  • Franco names successor

    *Juan Carlos de Borbon named successor
    --> shows Franco as a regent
    ----> nothing really changed but just reverted back to old centeralized ways of government
  • Monarchy Returns and Abdicates to the people

    *after calls for regional autonomy, right to strike & political freedom
    *after Juan Carlos succeeds Franco after his death in 1975
    * the centeralized government becomes a democracy once more