GCSE Edexcel History Crime and Punishment

By Remace
  • 1000

    Trial by Ordeal

    If jury couldn't decide, it would be God who decides if they are guilty or not.
    1. Trial by hot water (grab object from boiling water)
    2. Trial by hot iron (hold red hot iron for 3 paces)
    Then they wait 3 days, if hand heals well then innocent
    3. Trial by cold water (tied to chair and thrown in water)
    sink = innocent
  • Period: 1000 to 1500

    Middle Ages / Medieval period

  • Period: 1000 to 1066


    Compensation payed to a victim's of crime or their family
    The amount was based on the status of the victim.
    The Wergild was abolished by William I and the fines were payed directly to the king
    Killing a noble man was 300 shillings
  • 1066

    William is crowned king

  • 1066

    Trial by combat

    introduced by normans
  • 1069

    Harrying of the North

  • 1070

    Murdrum Fine introduced

    If a Norman was murdered, all the people of that region had to pay and expensive fine
  • Period: 1072 to 1217

    Forest Laws

    Poaching was illegal
    however, it was seen as a social crime
  • 1194

    Coroners Introduced

    They investigated suspicious deaths
  • 1215

    Trial by Ordeal is Banned by Pope

  • 1219

    Trial by Ordeal actually stops

  • 1327

    Justices of the Peace appointed for all areas

  • 1361

    Justices of the Peace Act

    JP's could give justice in minor cases
    JP's came together 4 times a year at 'quarter sessions' to discuss the most serious cases
  • 1400

    End of Tithings - 1400's

  • 1494

    Vagabonds and Beggars Act

    Stated vagabonds should be put in the stocks for 3 days
  • Period: 1500 to

    Early Modern Period

  • 1520

    Sanctuary abolished

    Criminals on the run could claim sanctuary at a church and stay there for 40 days before being required to either face trial or being forced to leave the country carrying a wooden cross.
  • 1534

    Henry VIII declares himself head of the Church of England

  • 1542

    Witchcraft Act

    Witchcraft became punishable by death
  • 1547

    Vagrancy Act

    vagabonds could be enslaved for 2 years
  • 1559

    Act of Uniformity

    Made attending church compulsory
  • Houses of Correction set up in each county

    Aimed to reform instead of deter
  • Poor Law

    Each parish had to collect taxes to support people who could not work
  • King James I Crowned

  • Gunpowder Plot

    By Robert Catesby
    Plan to blow up king who was going to be in house of parliment
  • Period: to

    Transportation to America

    Ended because of the American Revolution 1776
  • Church Courts abolished

  • Period: to

    Civil War

    Disputes about Religion and the King's power
  • Matthew Hopkins witch hunts 1645-47

    Operated in East Anglia
    Tortured suspects by making them stand up or stay awake.
  • King Charles I is beheaded

    He was convicted of treason
  • Law lists 50 capital crimes

  • Period: to

    Bloody Code

    Was ineffective as people were less likely to find criminals guilty as they thought the punishment was too harsh, this increased criminal's confidence in commiting crime
  • Period: to

    Industrial Period

  • Waltham Black Act

    Poaching becomes a capital crime
  • Fielding Brothers set up the Bow Street Runners

    Sought to deter by increased likely hood of detection
    Collected and shared evidence
  • John Howards "State of Prisons" report

    Empasises on rehabilitation
    Talks about corruption in prisons
    Talks about conditions in prisons
  • Period: to

    Transportation to Australia

    9 month journey
    Usually 7 or 14 year sentences
    Used as a more humane alternative to death
    Around 160,000 people were transported in total
  • law lists 222 capital crimes

  • Elizabeth Fry visits Newgate Prison

    Horrified at conditions in prisons
  • Waltham Black Act is Repealed

  • Gaols Act

    Stated prisons should be more secure
    Prison wardens should be payed
    Female and male prisoners should be kept seperate
    Attempts should be made to reform prisoners
  • Robert Peel sets up Metropolitan Police

  • Punishment of Death Act

    Reduces capital crimes to 60
  • Tolpuddle Martyrs are transported

  • Seperate System

    The Prison Act of 1839 preferred the new prisons to adopt the seperate system.
    Pentoville prison was the first to be built with the seperate system in mind
  • Pentoville prison opens

  • First Detectives

  • Silent System

    After the 1865 prison act, prisons began to use the silent system where prisoners were forced to be silent otherwise they would face harsh punishments.
  • The first National Crime Records was set up

  • Prisons Act

    This brought all prisons under government control
  • Criminal Investigation Department (CID) formation

    This was the start of the police investigating crime and not just preventing it.
  • Jack the Ripper murders

  • Period: to

    Modern Period

  • Borstals introduced for young offenders

    for 16-21 year olds
    seperated youth criminals from hardened criminals
  • Hard labour in prisons ended

    Crank/treadmill ended
  • Police bicycles

  • Period: to

    World War 1

  • Conscription introduced

    Males between 18 and 41 had to go to war
  • Police cars

    Introduced in the 1920's/30s
  • End of silent and seperate system

  • Two-way radios introduced - 1930s

  • Execution of under 18's ends

  • Open prisons

    e.g. Wakefield prison
    Aimed to prepare prisoners for a normal life after prison.
  • Period: to

    World War 2

  • Execution of Derek Bentley

  • Death Penalty supended for 5 years

  • Sexual Offences Act

    Homosexuality is no longer a crime
  • Death Penalty abolished

  • Domestic Violence Act

    Domestic violence becomes a crime
  • Police National Computer

  • Neighbourhood Watch

  • Racial and Religious Hatred Act

    Racial abuse becomes a crime