612px maerz1848 berlin

Pre-March + March 48/49

  • First Treaty of France

    Ends the war between France and the Sixth Coalition (Part of the Napoleonic Wars)
    Effects/Goals: -Reinstating the French Monarchy
    -French Borders: 1792
    -lenient Treaty
  • Congress of Vienna

    Congress of Vienna
    -Major European Powers reshape map after Napoleon
    -GOAL: Balance of Power
    -> "solidarity", "legitimacy", "restoration"
    -> Solidarity: Princes help each other to create balance: Concert of Europe
    -> Legitimacy: Divine Right
    -> Restoration: back to the Monarcy
    -Buffer States to encircle France
    -Security of Italy and "Germany"
    -Division of Italy
    -German Confederation
  • Period: to

    Congress of Vienna

    [see: Congress of Vienna]
    (this entry is for visual purposes only)
  • German Confederation

    Congress of Vienna disappoints with German Confederation: (instead of a proper nation)
    Especially student unions or fraternities that originated from the so-called Turnvereine and consisted of many who fought against Napoleon, demanded the foundation of a nation-state upon a liberal constitution and helped keep this movement alive.This sentiment is the driving factor of the period of pre-march, a period of anticipation after the Congress of Vienna leading up to the revolution in March 1848.
  • 100d Napoleonic rule

    100d Napoleonic rule
    Napoleon returns from Exile in Elba
    Austria, Prussia, Russia, UK send Army on 25 March ->Napoleon banished to Saint Helena
    ->France has to pay 700 Million Francs, is occupied until payment
    and has to return looted art/treasures
  • Period: to

    Napoleons 100 days rule

    [see 100d Napoleonic rule] (visual)
  • Holy Alliance

    Prussia, Russia, and Austria
    GOAL: Preserve Christianity and Monarchy Formed after Napoleonic Revolutions etc
    Ended with the crimean war 1854
  • Secondary Treaty of France

    Secondary Treaty of France
    This treaty, that was signed after the second defeat of Napoleon,
    is a lot harsher than the treaty of the previous year: French Borders reduced to 1790
    ->France has to pay 700 Million Francs, is occupied until payment
    and has to return looted art/treasures
  • Wartburg Festival

    Wartburg Festival
    Convention of 500 Protestant German students
    -tercentenary of Martin Luthers nailing of theses
    -fourth anniversery of the Battle of Nations Sppeches, Torchlight processions, burning of "un-german" books
    ==> Nationalist Movement started
  • Period: to


    This period became known as the Biedermeier, and was a conservative, restorative and politically resigned lifestyle and literature (!=premarch)
    Even though the middle class and bourgeoisie was aware of social inequalities, the fear of losing property they had was too great to state their demands publicly.
    Despite all this the cultural nation still remained a strong force and the idea of a German nation was kept alive through literature and plays especially in the educated middle-class.
  • Carlsbad Decrees

    Carlsbad Decrees
    Burschenscafter Carl Sand murders August von Kotzebue.
    This is taken as a pretext to establish the Carlsbad decrees, that represses civil rights.
    Student Unions were banned, universities put under governmental surveillance, internal observation committees introduced and strict censorship of any publications compromising under twenty pages installed.
    This policy of repression/suppression showed that the confederation could interfere with the individual states.
    => Biedermeier, Metternich
  • Napoleon dies in exile

    Napoleon dies in exile
    Fuking dies
    like a cuck
  • July Revolution in France

    July Revolution in France
    The July Revolution of 1830, in which King Charles X was overthrown and replaced by his cousin, Louis-Philippe, triggered another outbreak of social protests and open demands for political reform in the German Confederation.
  • Hambach Festival

    Hambach Festival
    On 27 May 1832 the student unions organised the Hambach Festival, which 25.000 people attended. The black-red-gold flags, that referenced Lützov Free Corps, became a symbol for german unity.
    In contrast to Wartburg, the anti-French sentiment was left behind, reflecting the influence of the July Revolution and the European dimension the movement had gained.
    => Wirth and Siebenpfeiffer.
    Still, the ideology remained inconsistent liberals/democrats
    Metternich->more civil rights restrictions (fail)
  • German Customs Union

    Free Trade within "Germany" (German Confederation) This solved some of the problems of the "Kleinstaaterei" and helped bring German states together, first small step to German Nation => Excludes austria due to their protectionist policy
  • Göttingen Seven

    Göttingen Seven
    When, in 1837, the Göttingen Seven, the Brothers Grimm and other university professors were dismissed from their posts, due to their protests against the alteration and abolition of the Hanoverian constitution by the new King, the government was yet again faced with an outcry.
    (Friedrich C. Dahlmann,
    Germanist Wilhelm and Jacob Grimm (fairy tale,Brothers Grimm), jurist Wilhelm Eduard Albrecht, historian Georg G. Gervinus, physicist Wilhelm E. Weber, and theologian Heinrich G. A.Ewald. )
  • Silesian Weavers

    Silesian Weavers
    (1844) The Silesian weavers (3000 weavers) were the first group to actually take a stand and make the overall spirit of the people clear.
    Prussian military crushed this revolt (11 people died).
    Industrialisation or technological progress also made skill and experience redundant, because machines became developed enough to take over the work formerly done by people of the lower class, who now didn’t really know how to make a living and became frustrated.
    => tense atmosphere
  • Crop Failures / Economic crisis

    Increasing Food Prices lead to lower purchasing power, which leads to surplus of manufactured goods.
    Factory owners are forced to scale down production and dismiss workers, which in turn decreases purchasing power.
  • March Demands (Baden)

    March Demands (Baden)
    Die Forderungen des Volkes
  • Feburary Revolution / Springtime of the Peoples

    Feburary Revolution / Springtime of the Peoples
    The February Revolution (1948) in Paris triggered the Springtime of the peoples, a wave of political upheavals and revolutionary spirit throughout Europe.
    The abdication of King Louis Philippe (who took the place of King Charles X after the July Revolution in 1830 and who was chosen by the people) came about forcefully and thereby brought forth the Second French Republic on 24 February 1948.
  • Vienna revolt / Metternich resigns

    Emperor Ferdinand and his chief advisor Metternich direct troops to crush a demonstration. When demonstrators move near the palace, the troops fire on the students, killing several. The working class of Vienna join the student demonstrations, becoming violent.
    The Diet of Lower Austria demanded Metternich's resignation. With no forces rallying to Metternich's defense, Ferdinand reluctantly complied and dismissed him. (promises constitution)
    The former chancellor went into exile in London.
  • Street Fighting in Berlin

    Street Fighting in Berlin
    During an announcement from King Friedrich Wilhelm IV a fight starts between Revolutionaries and Military:
    At the initialy peaceful gathering two shots are fired, (for unknown reasons), and the situation escalates. In the ensuing street and barricade fights, 303 People are killed (288 men / 11 women / 4 children)
  • King bows before the March Dead

    King bows before the March Dead
    King wears black-red-gold, bows before the march dead and claims to want German Unification and Liberty
  • Preliminary Parlament

    Preliminary Parlament
    Prepares election of National Assembly
  • National Assembly Paulskirche

    National Assembly Paulskirche
    Proffesorenparlament They try to pass a Constitution
  • NA rejects armestice with Denmark (no effect)

    NA rejects armestice with Denmark (no effect)
    They had to ratify the Armestice anyway lol (16. September)
  • Catalogue of fundamental Rights

    Catalogue of fundamental Rights
    The National Assembly finishes the Cataloque of fundamental Rights.
    (wow that took quite a while didn't it) It was never really in effect, but influenced later German Right Bills
  • Constitution passed! (good job boys)

    Constitution passed! (good job boys)
    The National Assembly passes the Constitution! (again, never rlly in effect, but influences later constitutions, including the way weaker one that was passed in prussia by the king after the failure of the revolution)
  • Failure of the German Revolution

    Failure of the German Revolution
    Friedrich Wilhelm IV rejects the Position as Emperor offered by the National Assembly.
    He is very polite about it, however a letter to his relative in England reveals he was disgusted by this offer, since it was not legitimized by "divine rule" ("crown from the gutter")("imaginärer reif aus dreck und letten") SInce the NA has no emergency-fallback, this means the entire revolution has failed.
    The NA is dissolved, delegates for Prussia and Austria among others are withdrawn.
  • Three-class Voting System (Prussia)

    *date not exact. So they basically implement way a way weaker constitution with a three-class voting system that favours the rich, mostly conservative people in germany
  • Rump Parlament CRUSHED

    Rump Parlament CRUSHED
    Southern German Delegates move to Stuttgart and try to continue the Assembly, but are dissolved by Würtembürgian troops. Many former delegates flee abroad and become known as Forty-Eighters