Timeline for Mussolini and Fascist Italy

By Tasnur
  • Formation of an independent Italy

    Formation of an independent Italy
    The divided countries within the Italian Peninsula were finally unified under one nation which became to be known as the risorgimento. This was a political as well as a social movement in which helped Italy become one nation; however, soon the French invaded that led to a collapse of the nation. This picture was chosen because it signifies the man in the image holding a gun which symbolizes him as fighting for Italy to become a free nation.
  • Papal States taken over by new nation of Italy

    Papal States taken over by new nation of Italy
    The last to join were the Papal states in which capturing Rome was the last event that put an end to the Risorgimento. Later King Victor Emmanuel II declared an end to his ruling over the Papal states under the unification of Italy. This picture clearly displays how Italy was seen before and after the reign of the Papal states were over. Moreover, this is important because it portrays how the division of the states were later refined under one unification and nation: Italy.
  • Failure of First Italo-Ethiopian War with the Battle of Adowa (Adwa)

     Failure of First Italo-Ethiopian War with the Battle of Adowa (Adwa)
    Under the Treaty of Wuchale, it was claimed by the Italian’s that Ethiopia was Italy’s property. However, the country of Ethiopia received help from France and Russia as they consisted of modern weapons. This led to the defeat and failure of the First Italo-Ethiopian War after the Battle of Adowa. This image displays the violent war between the Italians and the Ethiopians. The visual imagery of the multiple weapons in the images demonstrates the extreme act of violence during the war.
  • Italy invades and takes over Libya

    Italy invades and takes over Libya
    In 1911, colonization of Libya began by the Italians as they invaded Tripoli. Given the Treaty of Lausanne, The Ottoman Empire in which Libya was given up to the Italians. This image is significant because it effectively displays the Italians taking over control of the libyans. Moreover, it is very crucial to understand how far the influence of the Italians have gone.
  • Mussolini begins work as editor for the Socialist Party newspaper Avanti

    Mussolini begins work as editor for the Socialist Party newspaper Avanti
    After his detainment for endeavoring to make a dissent against WW1, he became manager of the Socialist Party paper Avanti!. He pushed for progressive viciousness towards the liberal state and helped in the ejection of support of traditionalists and reformists from the gathering. This image is important to the occasion, since it shows the first page of the paper and the information contained. This image here is displayed in the newspaper published by Avanti.
  • Mussolini kicked out of Socialist Party for pro-nationalistic sentiments regarding WW I 1914

        Mussolini kicked out of Socialist Party for pro-nationalistic sentiments regarding WW I 1914
    By 1914, Mussolini started to censure the Italian Socialist Party and communism itself for having neglected to perceive the public issues that had prompted the episode of the conflict. This drove him to be removed from the Socialist Party for his help of intercession and patriot perspectives. This image was chosen because this was one of the front pages of Mussolini’s newspaper he published about his opinions and the reason behind he was expelled from the Socialist Party.
  • Treaty of London

    Treaty of London
    Individuals from the fasci and the Associazione Nazionalista Italiana fought in the roads requesting Italian inclusion in WW1. Italy marked the Treaty of London, making sure they would join the conflict on the Triple Entente. The Allies needed Italy's support a direct result of its line with Austria, which would permit them to debilitate the Triple Alliance. This picture chosen is important as it displays the specific territories and land given out to Italy.
  • Beginning of Biennio Rosso

    Beginning of Biennio Rosso
    In 1919 as unemployment increased to around 2,000,000, laborers started to dispatch floods of military activity. Which was known as the Biennio Rosso. This consisted of revolts and the occupations of production lines and land. This image displays significance as it illustrates the people in the picture occupying guns in which they are pointing at the camera. This displays how violent and disastrous the Biennio Rosso was.
  • Fascio di Combattimento formed in Milan

    Fascio di Combattimento formed in Milan
    Individuals structure distinctive political gatherings framed the Fascio di Combattimento to unite patriots and communists in Italy. The Fascist Program was distributed on June 6, 1919 and consolidated the requests of the left and right wings. The gathering's first program was a mix of revolutionary patriot thoughts, with solid impacts of republicanism. This image displays the symbol of the Fasci Italian Di Combattimento in which shows the power it holds as a fascist group.
  • D’Annunzio takes Fiume

    D’Annunzio takes Fiume
    Gabriele D'Annunzio drove 2000 military to Fiume and assumed responsibility for the city for a very long time. In spite of the fact that D'Annunzio never announced himself a fascist, he has been depicted as the harbinger of Italian despotism as his thoughts impacted Benito Mussolini. This image displays the individuals of Fiume taking the roads to observe Gabriele D'Annunzio and his raiders assuming control over the city.
  • Mussolini forms alliance with Giolitti

    Mussolini forms alliance with Giolitti
    Mussolini framed the National Bloc fascist electing coalition with Giolitti and 35 fascist were chosen, consisting Mussolini. This picture is significant because it effectively illustrates the growing fascist power Mussolini had over his people as he ordered 60,000 military soldiers to march.
  • Mussolini forms the PNF (Fascist Party) and is elected its leader

    Mussolini forms the PNF (Fascist Party) and is elected its leader
    Mussolini marked the Pact of Pacification with moderate communists and the General Confederation of Workers. To get around their resistance, he left the Fascist Central Committee and convinced individuals from the Fasci di Combattimento to frame the association into the PNF. This image was chosen because it represents the PNF as a symbol. Moreover, showing its power against its opposes displaying the control Mussolini had over the Italians part of the Fascist group.
  • March on Rome and Mussolini becomes Prime Minister

    March on Rome and Mussolini becomes Prime Minister
    The ras and the public local army controlled the streets, rail routes and phone lines to restrict correspondence and travel. The King would not sign papers to approve military law and needed to frame an administration, however Mussolini declined. October 29, the King surrendered and Mussolini became prime minister of Italy. At the point when the fascist soldiers went to Rome, Prime Minister Luigi Facta wanted to pronounce a condition of attack, however King Emmanuel III overruled it.
  • Acerbo Law passed

    Acerbo Law passed
    Mussolini needed to change the electing framework to guarantee extremist control in parliament. The Acerbo law was presented and would make the gathering with at any rate 25% of the votes to have control over 2/3 of the seats. The image clearly displays how these men are following Mussolini’s order; moreover, with their strict faces it shows how serious they are to follow Mussolini’s order as it shows their trust and devotion towards the law passed.
  • Corfu Incident

    Corfu Incident
    This is where an Italian general was murdered in Greece and Mussolini requested a 50 million lire installment and a conciliatory sentiment. Overlooking the League of countries, Mussolini attacked Greece and at last got what he requested. This caused the help of Mussolini to radically increment. This image portrays the numerous number of people in Italian occupation and is significant because this was Mussolini’s push to get more help from the Italian individuals through patriotism.
  • Matteotti Crisis

    Matteotti Crisis
    Giacomo Matteotti was an autonomous and regarded socialist who went against extremist savagery and debasement that occurred during the 1924 political race. He stole and was killed by fascists under the request of Amergio Dumini. This political cartoon shows the coffin of Matteotti in which displays a very big man sitting on top of it to show how badly he was murdered. Moreover, the man being overweight illustrates how much of a huge amount of control the fascist had over socialists.
  • Aventine Secession

    Aventine Secession
    After the death of Giacomo Matteotti, an opposer of facist violence, an uprising from the public started. This included socialists, communists, and radical Popolari who protested the fascist government with intentions of dismissing Benito Mussolini from power. The rejection of this from King Emmanuel III, discontent increased in Italy. This image demonstrates the unity of those who believed Mussolini was involved in the death, which eventually was revealed to be true.
  • Battle for Grain

    Battle for Grain
    As a part of the series of Battles in southern Italy, this battle responded to the harvest and increased grain import issues. The goal was to increase cereal growth to reduce dependency on foreign imports. The southern land was infertile, causing farming to be expensive.1939, the cereal production doubled, showing the effectiveness of this battle. This image demonstrates how the growth of wheat and other plants were increased in the south to rely on Italian produce.
  • Locarno Treaty

    Locarno Treaty
    The agreements of the Treaty were negotiated in Locarno, Switzerland with the Allies and new European nations within a series of conferences. The goal of the Treaty was to ensure normality and lack of German war in the future. Italy played a role as it ensured mutual frontiers in the Rhineland between Belgium, France and Germany alongside Britain. This image depicts the Allies that came together to discuss the importance and the terms of the Locarno Treaty for the future of Europe.
  • Battle for Land and Battle for the Lira

    Battle for Land and Battle for the Lira
    Italians wanted to increase the land for harvest by draining swamps. This is vital as it created employment for many lower class southerners. The Battle for Lira began in August due to the loss of value in currency. This caused it to be revalued to avoid continuous internal price increases. The Battle for Land only regained Pontine Marshes and Lira led to domestic goods being more expensive. This image represents the situation in Italy during this time.
  • Battle for Births

    Battle for Births
    From 40 million to 60 million by 1950, the early marriages, maternity benefits, and preference of married men in the workforce was effective. This economic battle was a hindrance to single men due to the taxes and lack of jobs. However, to increase population restrictions on divorce, abortion, and employment were implanted. This image is of one of many benefits given to women as it prized their ability to sustain large families.
  • Lateran Treaty with Pope

     Lateran Treaty with Pope
    The fascist party and Vatican official, Gasparri negotiated to end the conflict from the 1870s. This included recognition of the Italian state possessing Rome and Vatican sovereignty in which Roman Catholicism was the official religion of Italy. This prevented a complete dictatorship and continued ideologies in Italy. This image displays the negotiations between the two parties, uniting them in several ways, yet separate as Mussolini never had complete control over the Church.
  • Kellogg-Briand Treaty

    Kellogg-Briand Treaty
    This international treaty consisted upon an agreement to avoid war as a resolution to conflict between nations. It included the US, Germany, and France and was later adapted by others. However, didn’t decrease militarism or prevent war as WWII involved several nations. In Italy, it lacked enforcement as well by the government, showing weakness in the treaty. This image represents the involvement and agreement upon the treaty by many nations, although it wasn’t as efficient as planned.
  • Stresa Front

    Stresa Front
    The French, British, and Italian leaders discussed the Locarno Treaty, especially the terms related to Germany. One of these was to resist changes to the Treaty of Versailles. In June of 1935, Britain went against this due to signing the Anglo-German Naval Agreement. This image of a political cartoon demonstrates how Germany was excluded from the powers discussion, yet was able to break the agreement. This is significant because it led to the start of an increased navy and power.
  • Abyssinian Crisis

    Abyssinian Crisis
    This was an international crisis between Italy and Ethiopia where the League of Nations became involved. However, the economic sanctions placed by the League weren’t effective and resulted in Italy leaving it. As a result, Italy, with help from Britain and France, occupied Ethiopia and leaned towards Nazi Germany. This image represents the geographical aspect of the cross in which Ethiopia was in the center. It highlights how France and Britain owned much of the surrounding land.
  • Italian involvement with Spanish Civil War

     Italian involvement with Spanish Civil War
    During the Spanish Civil War of nationalist vs the Republic, Italians intervened to aid the nationalist. Italy provided weapons such as tanks, machine guns, and artillery along with soldiers to aim in war. The involvement occurred due to Mussolini’s faith in fascist power after a victory against the Abyssinians (Ethiopians). This image of propaganda demonstrates how the Italians supported the Spanish nationalists by providing them with means against the Republic.
  • Rome-Berlin Axis Treaty

    Rome-Berlin Axis Treaty
    Germany and Italy joined together, known as the Axis Powers, to increase their status as allies. This is significant because it allowed them to have power in Europe which was beneficial in accomplishing their goals. Eventually, the two nations included Japan in their agreement. This image demonstrates the unification of two dictators, Adolf Hitler (Germany) and Benito Mussolini (Italy) in their goals of regaining power.
  • Munich Conference

    Munich Conference
    This was an agreement between Germany, United Kingdom, France, and Italy over German territory in the established state of Czechoslovakia. This is significant because it spread content throughout Italy and Europe due to the prevention of German aggression and war by annexing the border. Additionally, there were over 3 million Germans who had lived in the area which was taken. This image is significant because it demonstrates how only four nations were involved in the decision.
  • Italy invades Albania

    Italy invades Albania
    The invasion took place from April 7 to April 12 due to an Italian military effort against Albania. This was a result of Mussolini's imperialist policies. After the invasion, the defeat of Albania caused the nation to be under Italian power and leave the League of Nations as Italy had previously done. This marked the beginning of the Italian Empire, according to Mussolini. This image represents the invasion due to the military coup planned to start a new era for Italy.
  • Italy enters WWII on side of Germany

    Italy enters WWII on side of Germany
    From the previous alliance with Germany, Italy joined the Axis Power in WWII after the French surrender. Benito Mussolini wanted to gain land in North Africa through the war against Britain and France, yet the casualties, losses, and hardship during the war resulted in Mussolini’s downfall. This image demonstrates the start of the Second World War, which was filled with content that soon turned into dissatisfaction.
  • Mussolini brought down by coup during WWII

    Mussolini brought down by coup during WWII
    By declaring war on Britain and France, Mussolini had involved Italy in the Second World War. This meant that the losses and deaths of many soldiers during the war would fall onto him, resulting in his downfall. The Fascist Grand Council and King Emmanuel III voted him out of power and forced to resign. The image how there were many civilians in the Italian homefront against Mussolini’s actions toward war.
  • Mussolini killed

    Mussolini killed
    In an attempt to escape the Allies by fleeing from the Germans during WWII, Mussolini was arrested on the 27th of April which led to his death on the next day. In addition to his death, 15 other leaders of the fascist party and his wife were killed and hanged in Milan to demonstrate consequences for resistance. This image shows the publicity of the deaths that took place and represents the downfall of the fascist leader, Benito Mussolini.