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Coolest, Swaggiest, Most Intelligent, Number One Mussolini Timeline

  • Formation of an Independent Italy

    Formation of an Independent Italy
    Italy had gained its independence from Austria-Hungary on, March 17th, 1861. The people of Italy, once gaining their independence had hoped that it would be their chance to open Italy's government up to more liberal and modernized ideas. The picture depicts a meeting between the Italian General and the soon to be king of Italy during the fight in order to gain Italy's independence
  • Papal States taken over by the new nation of Italy

    Papal States taken over by the new nation of Italy
    In the year 1870, the Papal States, located near the Italian peninsula, was claimed as a part of the newly formed independent state of Italy only 9 years after its formation. This angered the pope at the time, Pope Pius IX, as he slowly began to lose territory within other regions as well. The picture shows soldiers defending the Papal States from the Italians as they enter the territory in an attempt to claim it for themselves.
  • Mussolini the Avanti Editor

    Mussolini the Avanti Editor
    In 1896 the socialist newspaper entitled Avanti was created, as to when Mussolini was to join as an editor for the paper is unclear. Nonetheless, Mussolini wrote socialist papers that were later published in the newspaper. The picture shown is an example of an article published by the Avanti newspaper, what it says is unclear due to the language barrier.
  • Failure of First Italo-Ethiopian War with the Battle of Adowa

    Failure of First Italo-Ethiopian War with the Battle of Adowa
    Arguably the most important battle was fought between the Italians and Ethiopians. The battle is often called the decisive battle of the war as after the massive blow to Italian numbers by the Ethiopians they were forced to retreat back to Eritrea, practically signaling the end of the war between the two nations. The drawing shown is a rendition of the harsh nature that the Battle of Adowa was to take on.
  • Italy Invades and takes over Libya

    Italy Invades and takes over Libya
    On September 29th 1911, Italian troops attacked the Turkish province of Libya, located within the Ottoman Empire, these actions alone would then lead to the Italo-Turkish War. The picture presented depicts Italian soldiers and Libyan citizens. The Italian soldiers armed and seemed to be "herding" the citizens to a desired location or to make a mass arrest
  • Mussolini Kicked out of Socialist Party

    Mussolini Kicked out of Socialist Party
    Mussolini had begun his political career as a socialist however during the beginning of WW1 before Italy had officially gotten involved, Mussolini wrote about his desire for Italy to join in on the war. This upset the socialists as it went against their ideologies. This ended up with Mussolini being discharged from the socialist party. This political cartoon demonstrates the socialist parties' distaste for Mussolini and his ideologies.
  • Treaty of London

    Treaty of London
    This was the treaty that declared that Italy was to join World War 1 with an alliance with France, Britain, and Russia. Not only that but with the Treaty of London, Italy was guaranteed a specific amount of land if they were to join the war. The picture provided shows Italy where it was before the treaty and it also shows the land which was promised to Italy after the war was over.
  • Beginning of Biennio Rosso

    Beginning of Biennio Rosso
    The beginning of the Biennio Rosso, also known as the "two red years" was right after the ending of World War 1. The time period was known for its social distress. Inflation increased, unemployment as well. Overall people were very unhappy with the way their governmental system. The picture provided shows factory workers armed with guns in an active protest against their working conditions. It provides evidence for the instability
  • Fascio di Combattimento formed in Milan

    Fascio di Combattimento formed in Milan
    Fascio Di Combatimento was formed by Mussolini and was reorganized into the Fascist political party in 1921. Fasci was an ultranationalist organization created in the aftermath of WW1 and aimed to appeal to war veterans. It began with no strong political orientation but moved more radically right after the results of the 1919 election. Fasci held support from the black shirts and Giolitti. The picture shows the symbol of the party, therefore it's core beliefs.
  • D'Annunzio takes Fiume

    D'Annunzio takes Fiume
    Gabrielle D'Annunzio, an Italian nationalist invaded Fiume and claimed the port for Italy. The escapade went against the Great Powers, showcasing the lack of reform since WW1. D'Annunzio curated the exposition under the terms of 'the kingdom of Italy,' however, Italy refused this offer to colonize Fiume. D'Annunzio aligned with ultranationalist views however was not a Fascist, he had a brief reign in Fiume, appointing himself as a Duce. The picture showcases the intensity of the exposition.
  • Mussolini forms alliance with Giolitti

    Mussolini forms alliance with Giolitti
    Mussolini formed an alliance with the leader of the Italian government, to ensure political power. He also wanted to have members of the PNF work their way into parliament. He did this during the time that he was becoming the leader of the PNF. This alliance allowed Mussolini to increase his chances of full political power under his Fascist ideology. The picture displays the media views of this alliance showcasing the large impact this had on the Italian Parliament.
  • Mussolini forms the PNF and is elected it's leader

    Mussolini forms the PNF and is elected it's leader
    After creating an alliance with Italian leader Giolitti, Mussolini formed the fascist political party or the PNF. Afterward, he is elected leader to serve in parliament. The fascist party was unsuccessful in the first election, with no members being elected, however, after Mussolini's alliance with Giolitti, the political party held a lot more success. The PNF believed in the expansion of Italy, a corporatist economic system, and opposed liberalism. The picture displays these beliefs.
  • Battle for Land and Battle for the Lira

    Battle for Land and Battle for the Lira
    The Battle of the Lira was an economic plan that pushed for Italy to increase their international power following WWI. The economy was in shambles, so leader Mussolini took charge to fix this. Strong currency was needed for this, so the Lira was introduced. Another program was the Battle for Land, which entailed creating more farmland to produce agriculture and improve living situations. The picture shows a world leader taking charge to improve farming for his people.
  • March on Rome and Mussolini becomes prime minister

    March on Rome and Mussolini becomes prime minister
    Following the March on Rome, which marked the beginning of Fascist rule in Italy, and the ending of previous parliamentary conduction Mussolini was appointed prime minister. This ensued because of the king's refusal to implement martial law during the march. After Italy succumbed to political chaos, Mussolini promised to restore order to the political system. Eventually, he eliminated all democracy and appointed himself as dictator. This picture demonstrates the vigor and pride of Mussolini.
  • Acerbo Law passed

    Acerbo Law passed
    Acerbo Law declared that the winning political party held 2/3 of the seats in parliament. It was designed to help ensure total political control by the fascists over the Italian government. It gave Mussolini more political power by giving the fascist party the majority of Parliament. Passed in 1923 it allowed for Fascist ideology to run rampant throughout the Italian government. The picture is significant because it shows the propaganda which came along with the newfound fascist influence.
  • Corfu Incident

    Corfu Incident
    During the time that Italy was within a military-diplomatic crisis with Greece, Mussolini decided it was time to portray Italy's military strength to the enemy. After many casualties along the Italian front in Greece, Mussolini showcased Italian strength within the Corfu Indicdent. This boosted his approval with ultranationalist and pro-war groups. Mussolini ordered a naval coup over Greece. This incident was seen as a failure for the league. The picture showcases the militarian nature.
  • Matteotti Crisis

    Matteotti Crisis
    Matteotti was an Italian socialist who had spoken out about the political unfairness and overwhelming control of the Fascist party, sparking a disillusioned effect regarding Mussolini. Resulting from this, Matteotti was beaten to death by a group of Fascist supporters or the Ceka/secret police. This event led to a turning point in Italian politics in the sense that people were turning against the fascist party. However, this did not last long. The picture shows the brutality of the event.
  • Aventine Secession

    Aventine Secession
    Following the assassination of deputy Giacomo Matteotti, Italian Socialists, Liberals, Communists, and the Popular party withdrew from the parliament. This was due to the spread of fascist opposition, with Benito Mussolini declaring his leadership over Italy accompanied by the support of the Fascist Party. After 2 years, 123 Aventine deputies succeeded their positioned before they were imprisoned or sent into exile. The picture represents 5 fascists eager to force their way into power.
  • The Battle for Grain

    The Battle for Grain
    The Battle for Grain, also known as the Battle for Wheat, was a campaign instilled by fascist Italy with the intent of producing grain entirely in Italy. Mussolini believed that implementing this would make Italy self-sufficient. National product increased, but foreign trade/relations decreased. Agriculture was focused too heavily on this, and livestock became neglected, resulting in eventual disaster. The picture shows Mussolini posed in a poster for the Battle for Grain movement.
  • Locarno Treaties Signed

    Locarno Treaties Signed
    Seven treaties were composed in Locarno, Switzerland regarding new territories being drawn across Europe. The Allied Powers met to decide new restrictions and establish peaceful relations. In the treaties, it was also agreed upon that Germany make no moves towards creating another war. The western section of Europe was decided for by the Allies, while the East section was given to Germany and Poland. The picture shows the three men involved in signing the treaty.
  • Battle for Births

    Battle for Births
    Italy saw the Romans as their rivals, so Benito Mussolini encouraged an increase in the Italian population. He feuded with the Church, who saw this as inhumane. Mussolini went about this by banning contraceptives and offering money rewards to married couples wishing to reproduce. This did not prove to be successful, with the population rate actually decreasing during his reign. The picture shows an Italian family with many children hoping to positively increase the Italian population.
  • Kellogg-Briand Treaty Signed

    Kellogg-Briand Treaty Signed
    A committee met to avoid any wars in the future. By outlawing such (as many other countries also did), many believed another World War would be prevented. This treaty was primarily sponsored by the United States and France. While it didn't prevent WWII, it laid a foundation for the execution of criminals after WWII. There was no enforcement of this treaty when it was made, meaning most regarded it as irrelevant. The photo pictures the group of men signing the treaty for world peace.
  • Lateran Treaty with Pope

    Lateran Treaty with Pope
    The church recognized the state of Italy with its capital of Rome. In return, Mussolini recognized papacy sovereignty for Vatican City. This meant that the Pope was given full independence to his own nation to spread Christianity without national interference. This was meant to regulate any issues that happened to arise between the two powers of Italy, The picture illustrates a newly improved relationship between Mussolini and the Pope, who formerly disagreed often.
  • Abyssinian Crisis

    Abyssinian Crisis
    The Abyssinian Crisis was an international crisis that was caused by an incident in Walwal, in which Italy had constructed a fort on agreed upon Ethiopian land, and was met with aggression by the Ethiopian Soldiers at the time. Both sides claim that the other began the skirmish, and as a result, a total loss of 107 Ethiopians was incurred, and 50 Somalis and Italians were also killed. The image shown is the region of Ogaden, in which Italy built the fort.
  • Stresa Front

    Stresa Front
    This agreement was made within Italy's Stresa between the British, French, and Italian prime ministers. The first focus of this agreement was to reaffirm the aims of the Locarno Treaties, since they were loosing popularity. The second area of focus was to declare Austria as independent. Another restriction included avoiding German proposals to change the Treaty of Versailles. The photo pictures the creators of the treaty dress intimidatingly in their final attempt to stop Hitler's reign.
  • Rome-Berlin Axis Treaty Signed

    Rome-Berlin Axis Treaty Signed
    Within 1936, Galeazzo Ciano formulated an agreement that would informally link the two fascist countries of Germany and Italy at the time as an alliance. This would be an informal coalition at the time. However; later on this alliance would be solidified and formalized during the pact of steel in 1939. Italy's reason for joining was to ally together in order to defeat the western democracies that had "threatened the people of italy" and progress. The picture provided shows Mussolini and Hitler.
  • Italy's involvement in the Spanish Civil War

    Italy's involvement in the Spanish Civil War
    Originally, 27 countries set out a non-intervention treaty to not intervene within the civil war within Spain, however, even after signing the non-intervention treaty, Mussolini continued to give aid to General Francisco Franco and his Nationalist forces. Furthermore, a secret treaty was signed in which Italy was promised the ability to build bases in Spain for more support. Towards the end, Mussolini would send 80,000 men. The picture shows the damage that the civil war caused within Spain.
  • Munich Conference

    Munich Conference
    The Munich Conference was a conference regarding annexation of the Sudetenland, in western Czechoslovakia. It was attended by leaders of Germany, Italy, Great Britain, and France. In the end, even after hesitation by France and Great Britain, Hitler was permitted to annex Sudetenland. This was because Allied powers felt like this was the only way to prevent further damage to Czechoslovakia if Hitler went ahead with it regardless. The picture shown is that of the Munich Conference with everyone.
  • Italy Invades Albania

    Italy Invades Albania
    Italy, specifically Mussolini, looked at Albania as a strategic take over in order to gain economically and militaristically. It would give Italy access to the Adriatic Sea, and a location for suitable bases. As a result, Albania was very quickly overrun by Italy and Mussolini's forces, and the Albanian Leader King Zog I was forced into Greece in exile. The picture provided shows the invasion of Albania from a geographical perspective.
  • Italy joins WWII on side of Germany

    Italy joins WWII on side of Germany
    After a long history of alliance, Italy officially joined WWII by declaring war on Britain on the 10th, June, 1940 and as such was officially on the side of the axis powers. The powers would continue their history of expansionism which would only bring them closer as they share the same views of nationalism, while all "fighting" communism. The picture shown is one taken while Mussolini was on tour to Germany, with Hitler shown alongside two other German leaders.
  • Mussolini brought down by coup

    Mussolini brought down by coup
    Benito Mussolini is voted out by his own council. This was a result of his complete jade as the war progressed and his inability to make choices as he once had. Looking sick and weak, Mussolini offered no objection to this, and simply surrendered. As he was taken, no attempts by fascists were made to rescue him, and it appeared as if he had lost all will to lead. Picture shown is Mussolini towards the end of his leadership.
  • Mussolini Killed

    Mussolini Killed
    While Italy was being overrun, Mussolini and his mistress at the time attempted to flee to Switzerland. At the border, Mussolini was recognized and shot, being killed. His, and Clara Petacci's, body was then transferred and hung upside down in Milan. In which the public mutilated the bodies to an indistinguishable extent; shooting, stabbing, throwing vegetables, urinating on, and kicked. Mussolini's face was completely disfigured by the end. The picture is Mussolini and Petacci hanging.