English Literature

  • 1200 BCE

    Homeric or Heroic Period (1200-800 BCE)

    Homeric or Heroic Period (1200-800 BCE)
    Greek legends were passed down orally, including Homer's Iliad, the odyssey, that was a chaotic period of princes, wandering sea merchant warriors and fierce pirates
  • Period: 1200 BCE to 455

    The Classical Period

    This period has four very important subsets in the history of literature.
    Homeric or Heroic Period (1200-800 BCE)
    Classical Greek Period (800-200 BCE)
    Classical Roman Period (200 BCE-455 BCE)
    Patristic Period (c.70 CE-455 CE)
    Fundamental Religious texts
    Often centered on royalty
  • 800 BCE

    Classical Greek Period (800-200 BCE)

    Classical Greek Period (800-200 BCE)
    This was a time of Greek writers, playwrights and philosophers such as Plato, Socrates, Aristotle, Euripides and Sophocles, in particular it is known as the golden idea in Greece, it was a sophisticated age of the individual polis or city-state and early democracy. Artworks of poetry, drama, architecture and philosophy.
  • Period: 455 BCE to 1485

    The Medieval Period

    This sub period is divided into two sub periods of the Old English and Middle Old English periods, it was a dark age that occurred after the fall of Rome and the transfer of the Barbarian, Frankish, Goth, Lombard tribes settled in the ruins of Europe and the Anglo-Saxons and together they migrated to Britain displacing the native Celts to Scotland Ireland and Wales.
  • 450 BCE

    Old English (423–1066 CE)

    Old English (423–1066 CE)
    This period refers to the literature produced from the invasion of Celtic England by Germanic tribes in the first half of the 5th century until the conquest of England in 1066 by William the Conqueror, in this period the written literature begins to develop from the oral tradition and written poetry, poets appeared who wrote on biblical and religious themes, notable literary texts such as Beowulf, The Seafarer, Waldere. Notable writers:
  • 200 BCE

    Classical Roman Period (200 BCE- 455 BCE)

    Classical Roman Period (200 BCE- 455 BCE)
    The culture of Greece gave way to Roman power, when Rome conquered Greece in 146 AD. The Roman Republic was founded in 509, but it was limited in size until later playwrights of that time, this republic slipped into a dictatorship under Julius Caesar and finally into the empire monarchy Cesar Augustus, writers like Virgil, Marcus Aurelius, and Lucretius.
  • 70 BCE

    Patristic Period (c70 CE-455 CE)

    Patristic Period (c70 CE-455 CE)
    This period is a point in the history of Christianity as they contextualize early Christian information from the time of the death of the last apostle John, describe the cohesion between Judaism and Christianity and various theological points being resolved by early Christian writers include Saint Augustine, Cyprian, Saint Ambrose and Saint Jerome compiled the Bible for the first time Christianity
  • 1066

    Middle English C c1066-1500 CE)

    Middle English C c1066-1500 CE)
    This period produced literature that was written, when the standard literary language derived from the dialect of the London area, later became recognizable as modern English, moreover had a wide range of works, as the population of England was literate and a considerable part too was bilingual and trilingual, a popular genre of English literature appeared which was secular and religious prose
    Notable literary texts: Canterbury Tales, The House of Fame, Sir Gawain.
    Authors: Geoffrey Chaucer
  • 1485

    Early Tudor Period (1485-1558)

    Early Tudor Period (1485-1558)
    The war of the roses ended in England with Henry Tudor, Henry VII claiming the throne of Martin Luther's separation from Rome, marks the rise of Protestantism followed by the Anglican schism of Henry VII who created the first Protestant church in England, Edmund Spencer a poet demonstrates.
  • Period: 1485 to

    The Renaissance and Reformation (1485-1660 CE)

    The English literary Renaissance, is characterized by lyric poetry, prose and drama were the main ones. The styles of literature that flourished during the Elizabethan era, also known as the Golden Age, introduced sonnets and the use of blank verse, and brought a gallery of great authors and literary masterpieces. It was a dynamic era filled with intellectual and religious revolutions and upheavals.
    Early Tudor Period
    Elizabethan Period
    Jacobean Period
    Caroline Age
    Puritan Interregnum
  • 1558

    Elizabethan Period (1558-1603)

    Elizabethan Period (1558-1603)
    English literature coincides with the reign of Isabella Elizabeth the first 1958 -1603, during this time the medieval tradition mixed with Renaissance optimism, lyric poetry, prose and drama were the main styles of literature that flourished during the Elizabethan era , writers such as William Shakespeare, Christopher Marlowe, Edmund , Mr Walter Raleigh and Johnson.
  • Jacobean Period(1603-1625)

    Jacobean Period(1603-1625)
    The Jacobean era of English literature coincides with the reign of James I 1603-1625, during this time literature became sophisticated, somber, and aware of social abuse and rivalry, produced rich prose and drama, as well as the English Bible translation. King James, writers like Shakespeare, Johnson, John Donn, Francis Bacon, and Thomas Middleton.
  • Caroline Age (1625-1649) Commonwealth Period

    Caroline Age (1625-1649) Commonwealth Period
    The Caroline Era of English literature coincides with the reign of Charles I, 1625-1649, the writers of this era wrote with refinement and elegance this era produced a circle of poets known as the gentleman, the poets and playwrights of this era were the latter who wrote in the Elizabethan tradition.
  • Puritan Interregnum(1649-1660)

    Puritan Interregnum(1649-1660)
    This era includes the literature produced during the time of Puritan leader Oliver Cromwell, this period produced political writers John Milton, Thomas, Hobbes's Political Treatise, Leviathan, and Andrew Marvel's Pros, in September 1642, the Puritans closed theaters for reasons moral and religious, for the next 18 years the centers remained closed due to the lack of drama produced during this period.
  • Restoration Period (1660-1700)

    Restoration Period (1660-1700)
    This time is marked by the restoration of the monarchy and the triumph of the previous one, the restoration produced an abundance of prose and poetry and the distinctive comedy of manners known as the restoration comedy, it was during the restoration that John Milton public Paradise Lost and Paradise Regained Other important writers of the period include John Dryden, John Wilmet 2nd Earl of Rochester, and John Locke
  • Period: to

    The Enlightenment (Neoclassical)

    It refers to the greater influence of classical literature in these centuries, it is also called the enlightenment due to the greater reverence for logic and disdain for superstition, it is marked by the rise of deism intellectual reaction against it earlier puritanism and revolution USA versus England, this era is known for its use of philosophy, reason, skepticism, ingenuity, and refinement.
    Restoration Period (1660-1700)
    The Augustan Age (1700-1750)
    The Age of Johnson (1750-1790)
  • The Augustan Age (1700-1750)

    The Augustan Age (1700-1750)
    The English Augustinian era derives its name from the brilliant literary period of Virgil and Ovid under the Roman emperor Augustus, English literature is characterized by predominant refinement, clarity, elegance and balance of judgment the best known writers are Jonathan Swift, Alexander and Daniel Defoe .
  • The Age of Johnson (1750-1790)

    The Age of Johnson (1750-1790)
    In this period the literary reflects the vision of instinct and feeling instead of judgment and moderation, the growing sympathy for the Middle Ages during the age of sensibility sparked an interest in medieval ballads and popular literature another name for this period it is the age of Johnson because the dominant players this year were Samuel Johnson and his literary and intellectual circle.
  • Period: to

    The Romantic Period (1790-1830 CE)

    Romantic literature can be characterized by its personal character, strong use of feeling, use of symbolism, its exploration of nature and the supernatural, in addition to the fact that the writings of the romantics were considered innovative, a spontaneous imaginary was active, personal and free. , in this period is born Gothic literature, fictional prose through popular romantic novels such as Pride and Prejudice, Emma, Persuasion.
    William Blake
    Samuel Taylor
    Horatio Walpole
  • American Renaissance (1830-1865)

    American Renaissance (1830-1865)
    American Renaissance is a little different than the general Renaissance that occurred a couple of hundred years earlier, this period came of age as an expression of the national spirit, writers Emily Dickinson, Watt Whitman, Hernan, critics consider some of the short stories produced in this era are some of the best American fiction ever written.
  • Period: to

    The Victorian Period and the 19th Century (1832-1901 CE)

    This period covers more than 6 decades, it is divided into early Victorian and late Victorian times, Victorian literature covers themes and problems, contemporary themes, the theoretical treaties include social, economic, religious and intellectual problems. Problems related to the industrial revolution, tensions such as the feminist movement towards political and social reform, there is an impact of Charles Darwin theory of evolution on philosophy and religion.
  • Transcendentalism (1835 -1860)

    Transcendentalism (1835 -1860)
    Movement took root in the United States and evolved into a predominant literary expression, they believed that knowledge could be reached not only through the senses but through the inclusion and contemplation of the inner spirit as such they professed skepticism of all established religions believing that divinity resided in the individual and the mediation of a church was cumbersome to achieve enlightenment essential unity to all belief notable writers were Ralph Waldo and Henry David
  • American Realism and Regionalism (1855- 1900)

    American Realism and Regionalism (1855- 1900)
    Great literary movement in a way that attempted to accurately portray a detailed picture of ordinary contemporary life looking at the time period that this happened, the literature of this era was very specific to the civil war very realistic containing detailed descriptions of the war, slavery, depicted reality up close and in full detail.
  • Naturalism (1890 -1910)

    Naturalism (1890 -1910)
    Naturalism is specific to the United States the idea of this era is that they were attempting to apply scientific principles of objectivity and detachment to their study of human beings, naturalistic literature is that people are destined for whatever stage in life, their heritage, Environment and social conditions prepare them for the power of primitive emotions to negate human reason, authors Edith Wharton and Jack London
  • Period: to

    Edwardian (1901-1914)

    This period is named after King Edward, the British Empire was at its height and the rich lived lives of materialistic luxury, however, a population lived in misery, the writers of this period reflect and comment on these social conditions, attacking industry social and the egoism of the upper classes. Notable writers:
    Charles Dickens
    Charlotte Bronte.
  • Period: to

    Georgian (1910-1936)

    This period is named after King George, many writers from the Edwardian period continued to write during the Georgian period, this produced a group of Georgian poets, modernism marked a radical break with traditional modes of literature, authors experimented with form and style, produced achievements in all literary genres.
    Poets: Yeats, T.S. Eliot, Dylan Thomas
    Novelists include James Joyce, D.H. Lauwrence and Virginia Woolf.
    Dramatist incluide Noel Coward and Samuel Beckett
  • The Lost Generation (1918- 1940)

    The Lost Generation (1918- 1940)
    A group of writers and thinkers known as the Lost Generation became synonymous with Modernism in the wake of World War I, a number of Americans, the artists chose to live abroad while pursuing their creative impulses, the Lost Generation artists fought for find some meaning in the world behind the chaos these included the intelligentsia the novelists Ernest Hemingway, Scott and the painter Waldo
  • Harlem Renaissance (1918- 1930)

    Harlem Renaissance (1918- 1930)
    During this time many African Americans migrated from the South to Northern cities in search of economic and creative opportunity, creative expression became an outlet for writers, musicians, artists, and photographers with a particular concentration in Harlem, New York, marking the rise of writing. black like Baldwin and Ellison this is the time African Americans received formal education
  • Period: to

    Modern Period (1936-1950)

    In this period he broke with tradition rejecting romanticism, as a result of the First World War he reacted on values and new literary genres appeared such as poetry, free verse, epiphanies and speeches, memoirs began to appear in literature. Notable writers:
    Ernest Hemingway
    F. Scott Fitzgerald
  • Beat Generation (1948 -1960)

    Beat Generation (1948 -1960)
    This was never a great movement in terms of sheer numbers, but in influence and cultural status they were more visible than any other aesthetic competitor, they advocated personal liberation and purification and enlightenment through increased sensory awareness the beat poets sought to transform poetry in an expression of genuine lived experience their works were sometimes read to the accompaniment of progressive jazz music.
  • Postcolonial Literature(1950-present)

    Postcolonial Literature(1950-present)
    Postcolonialism dealt with the study of colonization that began as early as the Renaissance, decolonization that involves recovering and rebuilding native cultures, and the process of neutralization, postcolonialism discusses metaphysics, ethical and political concerns about cultural gender identity, nationality, race, ethnicity, subjective, subjectivity, language and power
  • Period: to

    Postmodern Period (1950- 2000)

    Postmodern literature is the continuation of the experimentation of the writers of the modernist period that depends on fragmentation, paradox, questionable narratives, this literature is characterized by the use of metafiction, unreliable narration, self-reflection, intertextuality and which often thematizes both historical and political issues.
    Notable writers:
    Jean-François Lyotard
    Jean Baudrillard
    Gilles Lipovestky
  • Confessional Poetry (1958- 1965)

    Confessional Poetry (1958- 1965)
    It is the poetry of the personal the style of writing emerged in the late 1950s and early 1960s, it dealt with topics that had not previously been openly discussed in American poetry private experiences and feelings about death, trauma, depression, and relationships were addressed in this type of poetry, often autobiographically in a way that is associated with poets such as Robert Lowell, Sylvia Plath, and Sexton
  • Period: to

    The Contemporary (2000- Present)

    Contemporary literature refers to the literature of the 21st century, this literature has been used to discuss socio-political, economic and religious issues.
    New literary genres emerge that are mixed with different writing techniques and play with the limits between reality and fiction