Scottish Independence 1286-1329

  • Mar 18, 1286

    Death of Alexander III

  • Period: Mar 18, 1286 to Jun 7, 1329

    Scottish Independence 1286-1329

    Advanced Higher History
  • Apr 27, 1286

    Election of six Guardians (late April)

    Two bishops, two earls, two barons. Elected at a parliament at Scone
  • Aug 7, 1286

    Dispatch of Scottish envoys to Edward I to ask for advice and protection

  • Sep 15, 1286

    The envoys meet Edward at Saintes in Gascony

  • Sep 20, 1286

    The Turnberry Band

    Involving Robert Bruce the CLaimant, Robert Bruce, earl of Carrick, James the Steward and others.
  • Nov 25, 1286

    The envoys report back to the Guardians

  • Dec 31, 1286

    Winter 1286-1287 Civil War

    Seizure by the Bruces of the Balliol castle of Buittle and the royal castles of Wigtown and Dumfries. This revolt was suppressed by the Guardians.
  • Feb 16, 1289

    Edward I orders an enquiry

    Into the arrest by the sheriff of Yorkk of the bishop of St Andrews and other Scots envoys travelling to meet Edward
  • Apr 1, 1289

    Marriage talks

    Eric II of Norway sends ambassadors to raise with Edward I the question of the marriage of Margaret with Edward's son, Edward of Caernarfon
  • Apr 29, 1289

    Death of earl of Buchan

    Guardians reduced to five
  • Sep 10, 1289

    Murder of the earl of Fife

    Guardians reduced to four
  • Oct 3, 1289

    The Guardians appoint magnates

    To meet with envoys of the king of Norway in the prescence of Edward I, at the latter's request
  • Nov 6, 1289

    Treaty of Salisbury

  • Nov 16, 1289

    Bull of dispensation

    Allowing Margaret to marry Edward of Caernarfon
  • Jan 28, 1290

    Death of Devorguilla, mother of John Balliol

  • Feb 20, 1290

    Edward I orders Antony Bek, bishop of Durham, to take possession of the Scottish king's lands in Penrith and Tynedale

  • Mar 14, 1290

    Scottish council or parliament at Birgham ratifies the Treaty of Salisbury

  • Mar 17, 1290

    Guardians write to Edward I and Eric II

    The Guardians, prelates and other magnates of Scotland write to Edward I expressing joy at the rumour of a dispensation to allow marriage.
    The Guardians write to Eric II asking him to send Margaret to England
  • Apr 17, 1290

    Edward I urges Eric to send Margaret to England

  • May 15, 1290

    Edward binds himself to pay the Guardians 3000 marks if Margaret does not arrive by 1 November

  • Jun 4, 1290

    Edward assumes control of the Isle of Man

    A possession of the Scottish Crown, and takes the islanders under his protection (returned to King John 5th January 1293)
  • Jun 20, 1290

    Edward empowers Bishop Bek to receive the men of the Western Isles into Edward's peace

  • Jul 18, 1290

    Treaty of Birgham

  • Aug 28, 1290

    Edward ratifies the Treaty of Birgham at Northampton

    He appoints Bek as lieutenant in Scotland for Margaret and Edward of Caernarfon and commands the Guardians to obey him. He appoints plenipotentiaries to treat with Eric II about the marriage.
  • Sep 30, 1290

    Late September/October Death of Margaret en route to Scotland

  • Oct 7, 1290

    Bishop Fraser of St Andrews writes to Edward I

    Regarding the rumour that the Maid of Norway has died, and asks for help if the rumour should prove true
  • Nov 28, 1290

    Death of Queen Eleanor of England

  • Jan 20, 1291

    Bishop Bek of Durham and two other envoys ordered to go to Scotland

  • Mar 8, 1291

    Edward writes to the abbot of Evesham

    For historical information to support his claim to be overlord of Scotland (the first of several letters of this kind)
  • Apr 16, 1291

    Edward orders troops to assemble at Norham on 3 June

  • May 6, 1291

    Meeting of the English parliament at Norham

    Possible meeting of the Scots community at Berwick
  • May 10, 1291

    Part of the Scots community comes to Norham

    Speech of Roger Brabazon on behalf of Edward requiring the Scots to recognise Edward as overlord of Scotland. The Scots are granted an adjournment until the next day.
  • May 11, 1291

    The Scots are granted an adjournment of three weeks to allow them to produce written evidence against Edward's claim

  • Jun 4, 1291

    Bruce, Hastings, Count Florence and other claimants are persuaded to accept Edward's overlordship

  • Jun 5, 1291

    Balliol arrives with Comyn and they agree to accept Edward's overlordship

  • Jun 6, 1291

    Award of Norham

    Nine claimants issue a document accepting Edward's overlordship and jurisdiction (one name is omitted and three others have yet to put forward their names). The claimants agree that Edward shall have seisin of Scotland so that he may make judgement in the case.
  • Jun 12, 1291

    Edward enters Scotland.

    The Guardians and keepers of castles surrender the castles to Edward as a claimant on behalf of all the claimants.
    The bishop of Caithness, having been chosen by the Guardians and appointed by Edward, is sworn in as chancellor.
    Edward declares that the award will be made in Scotland, and guarantees to hand over Scotland to the new king within two months of a judgement.
  • Jun 13, 1291

    Edward takes formal possession of Scotland

    He adds an Englishman, Brian fitzAlan, to the Guardians. The Guardians and many magnates take an oath of fealty to Edward.
  • Jun 16, 1291

    Edward asks the claimants to name a time and place for the hearing of the case

    They choose Berwick and accept Edward's suggestion of 2 August.
    It is agreed that auditors should be appointed
  • Aug 3, 1291

    Meeting in Berwick Castle

    Then a meeting of claimants and auditors in the church of the disused DOminician friary. Presentation of petitions by 12 claimants. Count Florence to be given time to find a document which would support his claim
  • Aug 12, 1291

    Case adjourned until 2 June 1292

  • Jun 2, 1292

    Resumption after the adjournment

    Eric II submits a claim as his daughter's heir
  • Jun 14, 1292

    Agreement between Bruce and Florence to help each other's claim

  • Jun 16, 1292

    The auditors hear arguments by the claimants

    Edward decides that the case is proceeding too slowly, and orders that a decision between Balliol and Bruce should come first; the claimants agree to this in Edward's prescence.
    Edward asks by what laws and customs the case should be judged.
    The Scottish suditors, unable to agree, ask for help from the English auditors
    During an adjournment, to last until 14 October, all involved are to consider the case
  • Jun 21, 1292

    Balliol and Bruce appear before Edward and declare that he could now make a judgement between them

    The absence of a judgement on this date suggests that it could not be decided which law was applicable. The pleadings are collected and lie until October
  • Oct 14, 1292


  • Oct 24, 1292

    Edward asks his council by what laws and customs he should judge

    This discussion is probably compicated by the opinions received from Paris.
    The case is adjourned until 6 November
  • Nov 6, 1292

    Judgement is pronounced against Bruce

    But Balliol's claim cannot proceed until the agreements of the other claimants are heard. Edward adjourns the case until 17 November when he will give judgement after discussion with his council
  • Nov 7, 1292

    7-15 November Pleadings before the auditors by various claimants

    Some in writing, some by attorney. Bruce appears before the auditors and puts forward a claim to all or part of Scotland. Hastings also claims part of Scotland
  • Nov 15, 1292

    The king's council examines the written pleadings of Bruce and Hastings

    The Scottish auditors, asked if Scotland can be divided, say no.
  • Nov 17, 1292

    The assembly resumes

    Eight claimants, including Count Florence, withdraw their claims. Three others, including King Eric, are declared not to have pursued their petitions. The claims of Bruce and Hastings for a part of Scotland are rejected.
    Balliol is awarded the kingdom of Scotland
  • Nov 20, 1292

    Balliol swears fealty to Edward

  • Nov 30, 1292

    Balliol is inaugurated at Scone as King John

  • Dec 26, 1292

    King John does homage to King Edward

  • Oct 22, 1295

    Treaty between France and Norway

    Norway to provide ships for invasion of England (paid for by France), and not to make war on the Scots.
    Scots agree not to go to war with Norway
  • Oct 23, 1295

    Treaty between France and Scotland (beginning of the Auld Alliance)

    Mutual military aid against England
    Peace not to be made separately
    Edward Balliol to marry Jeanne de Valois, niece of Philip IV
  • Feb 23, 1296

    Ratification of the Treaty by King JOhn and the community, including burgess representatives

  • May 1, 1297

    May 1297 Murder of William Hesilrig, sheriff of Lanark by William Wallace

  • Jun 30, 1297

    Late summer 1297 Joins forces with Andrew Moray

    Raid on Scone with Sir WIlliam Douglas
  • Jul 1, 1297

    July: Raid on Bishop WIshart's house at Ancrum, following the capitulation of Irvine

    In the Forest of Selkirk with a force
  • Aug 1, 1297

    July/August 1297: Move across Perthshire and Fife; siege of Dundee Castle

  • Sep 11, 1297

    The Battle of Stirling Bridge

    Surrender of Stirling Castle to Wallace
    Move to Berwick
    Berwick (Edinburgh and Roxburgh) in Scots hands, but not their castles
  • Oct 11, 1297

    Letters to Luebeck and Hamburg

  • Oct 11, 1297

    Letters of Wallace and Moray to Luebeck and Hamburg declaring it safe to resume trade

  • Oct 18, 1297

    Invasion of Northumberland

  • Nov 3, 1297

    Election of William Lamberton as bishop of St Andrews at Wallace's instigation

  • Nov 11, 1297

    Decision to turn back from County Durham; racaging of Tyndale

  • Dec 31, 1297

    October/November Invasion of Cumberland and Durham; assault on Carlisle

  • Mar 29, 1298

    Before this date Wallace was knighted and appointed Guardian

  • Jul 22, 1298

    The Battle of Falkirk

    After this Wallace ceases to be Guardian
  • Jun 1, 1299

    June 1299: Treaty of Montreuil-sur-Mer

    Settlement of dispute over Gascony between England and France; Edward I to marry Philip IV's sister, Margaret.
  • Jun 28, 1299

    The bull Scimus Fili issued by Pope Bonifcae VIII

  • Jul 1, 1299

    July: King John released by Edward I into papal custody

  • Aug 1, 1299

    Around August 1299

    Wallace intending to go abroad, probably on a diplomatic mission. Perhaps to Norway (or the Orkneys), France and Rome.
  • Aug 24, 1299

    Cuts off supplies to English garrison of Stirling Castle

  • Nov 30, 1299

    November/December 1299: Wallace in France

  • Oct 31, 1300

    Truce between England and Scotland to last until 21 May 1301

  • Nov 7, 1300

    After this date journey to Rome

  • Mar 26, 1301

    Safe-conducts issued by Edward I to Scots envoys to meet English and French envoys at Canterbury on 16 April

  • Apr 8, 1301

    The conference apparently in session

  • Apr 25, 1301

    Edward announces that the discussions have been broken off

    May: Scottish delegation, including Mr Baldred Bisset, putting the Scottish case to Boniface VIII
  • May 21, 1301

    Expiry of Anglo-Scottish truce

  • Jul 1, 1301

    Summer 1301: Release of King John from papal custody; he returns to his ancestral lands in Picardy under the protection of King Philip

    Robert Bruce (the future king) returns to Edward I's allegiance
  • Jan 26, 1302

    Truce of Asnieres-sur-Oise

    Truce between England and Scotland until 1 November 1302
    French to hold lands in Scotland taken by the English; these are to be handed over by 16 February and held for the duration of the truce
  • Jul 11, 1302

    Major defeat of the French by the Flemings at Courtrai

  • Aug 5, 1302

    Safe-conducts issued to Scots envoys to meet envoys of Philip IV

  • Nov 23, 1302

    Letter of King John giving Philip a free hand in negotiations with England

  • May 20, 1303

    Peace treaty between England and France, excluding the Scots. Edward of Caernarfon to marry Isabella, Philip's daughter

  • Jun 1, 1303

    June 1303: In Selkirk Forest

    Raids into Annandale, Liddesdale and Cumberland with John COmyn and Simon Fraser
  • Sep 10, 1303

    Skirmish with English troops involving Wallace and Fraser

  • Jan 1, 1304

    Unknown date in 1304: Defear of Wallace and Fraser at Happrew (Fraser's lands near Peebles)

  • Jan 11, 1304

    Letter revealing a preliminary meeting at Kinclaven between English representatives and John Comyn

  • Jan 19, 1304

    Discussion of surrender terms at Kinclaven

  • Feb 5, 1304

    English negotiators sent to Strathord to finalise terms with the Scottish government

  • Feb 6, 1304

    Copy of draft terms sent to Edward I

  • Feb 16, 1304

    Scots magnates do homage to Edward

  • Sep 1, 1304

    September 1304: Fight with English troops under de Valence at Ironside near Dundee

  • Aug 3, 1305

    Wallace is captured by Sir John Menteith near Glasgow

  • Aug 22, 1305

    Wallace arrives in London

  • Aug 23, 1305

    Execution of William Wallce

    He was hanged, drawn and quartered — strangled by hanging but released while he was still alive, castrated, eviscerated and his bowels burnt before him, beheaded, then cut into four parts. His preserved head (dipped in tar) was placed on a pike atop London Bridge.
  • Jul 7, 1307

    Death of Edward I; accession of Edward II

  • Nov 1, 1308

    November 1308: Attempt by Philip IV to obtain a truce for the Scots

  • Jan 1, 1309

    January 1309: Truce to last till 1 November, then a series of truces till March 1310

  • Mar 16, 1309

    Scottish reply to a letter of Philip asking for help in a crusade

    Not possible until Scotland was free and at peace
  • Jul 7, 1309

    Letter of Philip to Edward II referring to Robert as king of the Scots

  • Oct 29, 1312

    Treaty of Inverness with Norway

    Treaty of Perth (1266) renewed; mutual compensation for incidents between the two countries
  • Nov 30, 1313

    Bishop of St Andrews given safe conduct by Edward II to go to Philip IV

  • Nov 3, 1314

    Death of Philip IV; accession of Louis X

  • Apr 20, 1316

    Death of Pope Clement V

  • Jun 3, 1316

    Death of Louis X;accession of Philip V

  • Aug 7, 1316

    Election fo John XXII (Pope 1316-1334)

  • Jan 3, 1317

    August/September 1317: Two legates sent to Britain by John XXII

    Robert I refuses to negotiate with them until papal letters address him as king
  • May 25, 1318

    Late May 1318: Robert I and his supporters excommunicated; Scotland placed under interdict

  • Nov 18, 1319

    Four Scottish bishops ordered to appear before the pope by 1 Mar 1320 (order ignored)

    December: Negotiations at Newcastle: two year truce agreed
  • Apr 6, 1320

    Scottish barons' letter to the pope (Declaration of Arbroath)

  • Aug 26, 1320

    Reply from John XXII urging both sides to make peace

  • Jan 3, 1321

    January 1321: Edward II appoints envoys to reat for peace

  • Mar 31, 1321

    March/April: Negotiations at Bamburgh involving Scots, English, French and papal representatives

  • Jan 2, 1322

    Death of Philip V; accession of Charles IV

  • Jan 6, 1322

    Expiry of Anglo-Scottish truce

  • Jan 3, 1323

    Negotiations between Robert I and Andrew HArcla. earl of CArlisle, at Lochmaben

  • Feb 25, 1323

    Harcla arrested by the English government

  • Mar 2, 1323

    Execution of Harcla

  • May 30, 1323

    Truce to last 13 years concluded at Bishopsthorpe

  • Jan 13, 1324

    Pope writes to Edward II

    Says that he would call Robert king to help bring peace nearer
    English mission to the pope to secure maintenance of papal sanctions against the Scots
  • Jul 2, 1324

    Edward Balliol given safe-conduct to come to England

  • Nov 3, 1324

    Safe-conduct for Scottish envoys to go to York to treat for peace

  • Nov 25, 1324

    Edward II has letters to the pope drawn up asking that the Scots be absolved during the peace negotiations

  • Jan 1, 1325

    1325: Peace between England and France

  • Apr 26, 1325

    Treaty of Corbeil

    Between Scotland and France: mutual support against England
  • Jan 20, 1327

    Deposition of Edward II; accession of Edward III

  • Mar 6, 1327

    English government unilaterally confirms the 13 year truce, but Scots regard it as broken because of Edward II's deposition

  • Oct 9, 1327

    English envoys appointed to treat for final peace

  • Oct 18, 1327

    Reply from Robert I, setting out basis for peace

  • Oct 30, 1327

    Edward III agrees that negotiations should begin

  • Mar 1, 1328

    Letter of Edward III renouncing English claims to Scotland

  • Mar 17, 1328

    Treaty of Edinburgh (a series of documents)

    Edward renounced his claim to overlordship over Scotland.
    Marriage arranged between Prince David and Edward's sister, Joan.
    Military alliance between Scotland and England, saving the Franco-Scottish alliance made in the Treaty of Corbeil.
    Robert to pay Edward £20,000 to secure peace, to be paid in three annual instalments.
    The English Government to seek an end to papal excommunication of Robert and his supporters
  • May 4, 1328

    Treaty ratified by the English parliament at Northampton

  • Jul 1, 1328

    July: Marriage of David and Joan solemnised

  • Oct 1, 1328

    October: Excommunication lifted by the pope

  • Jun 7, 1329

    Death of Robert the Bruce

    Cause of death, probable lepracy