Russian Revolution, Civil War, and Lenin

  • Revolution of 1905 and the October Manifesto

    Revolution of 1905 and the October Manifesto
    A wave of worker strikes, military mutinies, and civil unrest throughout Russia as a result of the losses faced from fighting the Russo-Japanese War as well as government incompetence. Demanded more civil liberties and less government control.
    The picture depicts the positive reception to the October Manifesto, showing the people’s feelings of liberation from the government’s restrictive policies.
  • Beginning of WW I

    Beginning of WW I
    Russia joined Serbia in a war against Germany and Austria-Hungary as per an alliance between the two, as well as an interest in having control of the Balkans. It resulted in Germany declaring war on Russia.
    This picture serves as propaganda to rally people into supporting the Russian war effort.
  • Czar Nicholas II take sole control of military operations

    Czar Nicholas II take sole control of military operations
    In a desperate attempt to lessen the losses faced during the war, Tsar Nicholas II takes personal control over the military and is responsible for overseeing the war effort. Over time, it would lead to further government incompetence and less stability on the home front.
    Picture of kneeling soldiers, highlight their loyalty to the tsar, and demonstrating Nicholas II’s role as commander of the Russian army
  • Brusilov Offensive

    Brusilov Offensive
    A massive offensive in World War I that took place from June 4 to September 1916. Was a major victory for the Triple Entente, allowing Russia to push further into Austria-Hungary, but included an incredible loss of life. While gaining the Provisional Government a victory in the short-term, led to resentment on the homefront due to the great loss of life from this offensive.
    Picture is a map of the Brusilov Offensive.
  • Assassination of Rasputin

    Assassination of Rasputin
    Due to his growing unpopularity among the Russian population, a group of right-wing noblemen killed the Tsar’s minister, Grigori Rasputin, by luring him into the Moika Palace.
    Picture above is Rasputin’s dead body.
  • Provisional Government formed

    Provisional Government formed
    With no immediate replacement for the tsar’s position, the government establishes the Provisional Government as the central governing power of Russia. The group mainly consisted of liberals, moderate socialists, and Constitutional Democrats.
    Above is an image of the provisional government. The picture is symbolic because it demonstrated the new government of Russia will be a group effort rather than dependent on a sole leader.
  • International Women’s Day March in Petrograd

    International Women’s Day March in Petrograd
    A group of women textile workers held demonstrations in Petrograd to speak out against intolerable working conditions. They were soon joined by many other factory workers and became the spark to the 1917 revolution.
    An image of the protesting women. This picture shows the women’s role in initiating the 1905 revolution, and convey the people’s discontent for the current working conditions
  • Nicholas II Abdicates

    Nicholas II Abdicates
    Due to the population’s rising resentment towards the tsar, as well as the advice from his advisors, Nicholas II is abdicated from his position as tsar with no immediate replacement.
    Nicholas II pondering on a tree stump immediately after stepping down as Tsar.
  • Return of Lenin from exile

    Return of Lenin from exile
    Lenin’s return to Russia was through a dangerous path from war-torn Germany to Scandinavia, making Lenin increasingly anticipate joining the growing revolution against the Russian government. Lenin returned to Russia and the Bolshevik conference by giving fiery speeches that boosted the party's morale, encouraging them to overthrow the Russian government.
    Picture above shows Lenin arriving to an excited crowd in Petrograd.
  • April Theses published

    April Theses published
    The April Theses were ten speeches given by Lenin to discourage the Soviet worker councils to stop supporting the Provisional Government and called for new Communist policies. This marked a turn in the Bolshevik party against the Provisional Government, enforcing the ideals that change would only be achieved through a violent overthrow of the current regime.
    Picture shows Lenin at a rally held around the time of the publish of his thesis.
  • First All-Russian Congress of Soviets meets

    First All-Russian Congress of Soviets meets
    Meeting between the worker’s unions that was around 1000 delegates of mainly Social Democrats and Mensheviks. Contrasted Lenin’s ideals of a Soviet led Russia, and rejected the idea of transferring all of the government’s power to the Bolsheviks. Represented the contrasting ideals that challenged the ideals of Lenin, which would later culminate in the revolution against the Bolshevik government.
    This picture shows the congress in debate.
  • July Days

    July Days
    Period of protests and demonstrations between July 16 to July 20 in Petrograd, Russia by workers and soldiers. Protested the Provisional Government and their treatment of their citizens and the warfront. Displayed a shift of ideals for the Russian citizens against the Provisional Government.
    This picture shows the large protest in the July Days.
  • Kornilov Affair

    Kornilov Affair
    An attempted coup d’etat by the head of the Russian army Lavr Kornilov against the Provisional Government. While not successful, shows how even the government’s own soldiers disliked the situation within Russia and especially the treatment of the warfront. Represents the anger people felt towards the Russian government and their treatment of World War I.
    This picture shows Kronilov’s troops.
  • Bolsheviks overthrow the Provisional Government and take control

    Bolsheviks overthrow the Provisional Government and take control
    Trotsky organizes an overthrow of the government and replacement with a Bolshevik-lead socialist government. Bolsheviks took over key buildings, usually without force, and became the ruling party.
    Lenin celebrates his victory in the town with the people
  • Cheka formed

    Cheka formed
    Once the new regime came to power, they planned to keep their power using fear and chaos in the form of secret police. The Cheka was meant to track down and kill opponents to the new regime in order to maintain power. Used terror tactics.
    Image is the Cheka's symbol
  • Kolchak (one of the White leaders) begins serious attacks against Reds from Siberia

    Kolchak (one of the White leaders) begins serious attacks against Reds from Siberia
    Kolchack and the white opposition forces worked with the British and other foreign armies to fight against the Bolsheviks. Due to poor geographical position and a lack of industrial production, their attacks proved not incredibly effective and they were weakened and eventually defeated with time.
    A picture of Kolchak.
  • Wartime Communism created

    Wartime Communism created
    Wartime Communism, introduced by Lenin, was a system meant to aid the Red Army in their war against the White Army. The country went under strict governmental control, with the government taking over factories and farms, while the people were being strictly punished and controlled.
    Image of overworked workers continuing to do manual labor under the control of the government
  • Trotsky organizes Red Guard to defend Petrograd

    Trotsky organizes Red Guard to defend Petrograd
    Trotskey organized the Red Army in order to defend Petrograd from revolters. Revolutions were occurring all across Russia due to the incompetence and growing dislike of the current government.
    Late 1917-Early 1918
    Trotskey and the Red Guard pose for a photo
  • Constituent Assembly meets and is disbanded

    Constituent Assembly meets and is disbanded
    The Constituent Assembly met for 13 hours across two days. It was dissolved due to the fact that the Bolsheviks had the majority in the Soviets. They justified the dissolvement by showing that the election did not account for the splitting of the SR party.
    Drawing of the Constituent Assembly the day they disbanded
  • Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

    Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
    The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, drafted by Grigori Sokolnikov, was signed on March 3, 1918 by Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire, and Bulgaria. This treaty ended Russia’s participation in World War 1. As a result, Russia lost a lot of territory and money.
    Representatives of nations involved in the treaty meeting to look over and sign the document
  • Red Terror

    Red Terror
    The Red Terror was used to get rid of the Bolshevik’s enemies as well as display to the public that the Bolsheviks were with them. The Bolshevik’s used arrests, violence, public executions and intimidation in order to scare the people into compliance. Main targets were those who sided with the White Army.
    Picture depicts personification of Red Terror.
  • Ukraine brought under Soviet control

    Ukraine brought under Soviet control
    After years of fighting in the Soviet-Ukrainian War, Ukraine lost the support of the central powers and fell to the Soviets. It would eventually be incorporated into part of the USSR.
    Picture is a map of the Brusilov Offensive.
  • Poles move toward Kiev

    Poles move toward Kiev
    The Polish military tried to capture and free the territory of Ukraine that had recently come under the control of the Bolsheviks. The Polish were successful initially, but eventually fell to the Soviets.
    Picture is a polish soldiers being inspected by a French Commander.
  • Soviets attempt to take Warsaw

    Soviets attempt to take Warsaw
    Following the defeated Polish Kiev Offensive, the Russians had pushed the Polish back to Warsaw. Commanded by Jozef Pilsudski, the Poles fought back the Russians (led by Leon Trotsky) and successfully defended the capital, keeping Poland from being captured by the Bolsheviks. 45,000 Russian casualties and 36,500 Polish casualties.
    Picture is of Polish forces with captured Soviet combat standards at the Battle of Warsaw.
  • Tambov Rebellion

    Tambov Rebellion
    This was a peasant rebellion fighting against the harsh conditions of the War Communism and lack of food in Russia. It was led by Alexander Antonov, a former leader of the Socialist Revolutionary Party. Around 100,000 people were arrested and 15,000 died. It last until mid 1921.
    Picture is of protestors with primal military arms.
  • Kronstadt uprising

    Kronstadt uprising
    Soviet Soldiers and sailors in the Kronstadt Naval Base fought against the Bolshevik government and War Communism. Demonstrated to the Bolshevik government that War Communism needed to end. If you lose control of the military, you lose control of the country.
    Picture is of troops at the Kronstadt Naval Base.
  • Ending of Wartime Communism

    Ending of Wartime Communism
    Following years of protests and harsh conditions, Lenin ended war communism by enacting the New Economic Policy. It would allow for small-scale business and minor elements of capitalism. While it was a step away from pure communism, it was necessary to ensure the existence of a communist government in Russia.
    Picture is a piece of propaganda depicting the greatness of Lenin and the use of communism to advance Russia.
  • Treaty of Rapallo

    Treaty of Rapallo
    This was a formal agreement between the German Republic and Ressuain Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. It went back upon the harsh claims of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk and established diplomatic relations, along with a mutually agreed upon declaration between both states to cooperate. With both being outcasts following the end of WWI, it was a newly developing alliance.
    Picture is of the negotiators creating the Treaty.
  • Formation of Soviet Union

    Formation of Soviet Union
    Russia combined with other smaller nations to form one collective country of communist governments, led by Russia. It was distrusted by many other nations worldwide, especially those in the League of nations.
    Picture is a map of the newly formed USSR.
  • Lenin dies

    Lenin dies
    Suffered from 3 strokes and eventually died. He desperately did not want Stalin to come to power because he did not agree with his approach to communism. Nevertheless, Stalin finagled his way into the leadership position of the USSR.
    Picture is of Lenin and Stalin before Lenin’s death.