Russia to 1941

  • EXTRA/BIBLIOGRAPHY

    Photograph. Web. http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-wxdgAiRcjHg/TmGF3cAnttI/AAAAAAAAGEM/fYvHGh8e2b8/s1600/stalinDM2109_468x551.jpg. Photograph. Web. http://www.alexanderpalace.org/palace/img/nic22006.jpg. "Russian Provisional Government (1917), Seal - Vector Image." Vector Images. Royalty-Free EPS Vector Clipart. Web. 07 Mar. 2012. http://vector-images.com/image.php?epsid=2362. Photograph. Web. http://www.emersonkent.com/images/lavr_g_kornilov.jpg
  • March Revolution

    March Revolution
    March 1917
    There were strikes and food shortages in Soviet Union at this point. Strikers were waiting on March 10 in Petrograd with one goal in common, to overthrow the Tsar. On March 12 Troops were ordered to control the strikers and instead they shot their commander and joined the strike. By March 14 Moscow had fallen.
  • Provisional Government

    Provisional Government
    Following Nicholas the Tsar II's abdication for both his son and himself, the Tsar's brother Michael refused to rule. To control the country came the Provisional Government which was made up of the Soviet and former members of the Duma. The Provisional Government was set in place as a temporary government until a new ruler could be elected. Seemingly promising to the people, the Provisional Government was not as it seemed. They were guilty of broken promises and were made up of two counter grou
  • The Provisional Governmment - Continued

    The Provisional Governmment - Continued
    two counter groups, the liberals, and the marxists. Failing to see themselves as a legit government, set a mood for Russia's people to feel the same. The government was blind to the poor conditions of Russia and felt the people would want revenge; however, they really just wanted positive change for the overall population and conditions.
    Being brought back by the German people, this person saw the potential held by the country. Lenin led the Bolsheviks, Soldiers and mobs to overthrow the govern
  • Provisional Government - Continued 2

    Provisional Government - Continued 2
    to overthrow the government, along with the powerful slogan "Peace, Bread, and Land". However, without the help of the Soviets, the takeover could not be done. This led to the flee of Lenin for the second time, however, giving him the time needed to plan his second takeover effort to happen in October. Other changes included the coming of Kerensky as PM of the Provisional Government, and The State Conference.
  • April Thesis

    April Thesis
    "Peace, Bread, and Land"
    Lenin's ever-powerful slogan was developed through his April Thesis, which was to be delivered through his newspaper, the Pravda. The thesis was made as a call to the population to show them his vision of an idealised Russia, a communist Russia built by the proletariat and peasants. It included immediate peace, seizure of gentry land, all power to the soviets, and the seizure of factories. Unfortunately, this did not have the ability to be proved, as the attempted
  • April Thesis - Continued

    April Thesis - Continued
    attemped takeover of the Provisional Government left Lenin to flee the country again. The slogan was slow to pick up, but began popularity largely among the Bolsheviks.
  • Kornilov Affair

    Kornilov Affair
    Summer 1917
    Often named a big miscommunication, the Kornilov affair happened because of the two non-agreeing groups who led Russia during the summer of 1917. The socials who were led by Kerensky, believed that the Constitutional Democrats led by General Kornilov were going to try to take complete control of the government. In a panic, Kerensky begged the recently barred Bolsheviks for help, giving them a new power which would result in more commotion to come in the country.
  • Bolshevik Revolution

    Bolshevik Revolution
    October 1917
    Being handed a new power after helping Kerensky and the Socialists during the Kornilov affair, the Bolsheviks were able to put their (this time planned) takeover into effect. In just under a month, the group was able to seize power with little resistance. They started with Petrograd on the 13th of October and continued with Moscow on the 23rd. This day also marks the return of Lenin. With the help of Trotsky, the Bolsheviks and Lenin arrested the members of the Provisional Governmen
  • Bolshevik Revolution - Continued

    Bolshevik Revolution - Continued
    t on November 7th 1917. A whole new Russia would begin to form under the power of Lenin and the Bolshevik Party.
  • New Government

    New Government
    Winter 1918
    A result of the Bolshevik revolution came a new government led by Lenin and the Bolshevik Party. As promised, Lenin followed his slogan "Peace, Bread, and Land". First to be dealt with was Peace, with an end to the war. Next, Land, as peasants started to seize it. A surprise to the Russian people, as past rulers had not kept promised words. Then, a Council of the People's Commissars was set up, with heads of Stalin and Trotsky. Many great things came for Russia, a peace negotiation
  • New Government - Continued

    New Government - Continued
    With Germany. Factories came under the power of workers' committees and a counter-revolutionary committee was established. Lenin began new plans to better Russia, such as War Communism which would nationalize industry, and suppress private trade, however it also brought up new problems, which would eventually break out in the civil war and poor attempts to fix it, leading to the fall of Lenin.
  • Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

    Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
    January 1918
    Under Lenin's power, one of his promises to the Russian people was to end the war. In order to accomplish this, Russia opened peace negotiations with Germany. In this, Russia gave up a large quantity of land in exchange for Peace. This was the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. Lenin felt that he needed to eliminate problems in order to focus on the bigger problems Russia had to resolve.
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    Civil War, Continued

    1918-1922
    The civil war was said to be fought in two groups, the Reds and the Whites. Being one group, the Reds were the communists and the Whites were composed by any opposing communists - tsarists, Cossacks, royalists, outlawed political groups, the list goes on. The Whites began challenging the Red communists, raising havoc. Seeing this, foreign countries began sending in armed forces, and soon, even more countries began to enter Russia, which set a new communist regime against the
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    Civil War

    new communist regime against the capitalist West from the very beginning. The whites began to pick up power, but Leon Trotsky stopped them with his military organising.
  • War Communism

    War Communism
    Summer 1918
    In an attempt to rebuild Russia, Lenin introduced War Communism. There was a nationalization of industry which eventually led to the disappearing of private industry almost completely. Compulsory labour was introduced and private trade was suppressed. All land became property of the government and then had workers who would cultivate it. The peasants were not pleased with this arrangement, which only caused more problems, and would be soon replaced by the New Economic Policy.
  • War Communism - Continued

    War Communism - Continued
    All food would be processed by the peasants and turned into the government, who would give it to the army. The peasants were allowed to keep only minimal amounts for their own well being. Becoming hungry and tired, the people began to rebel causing force to be used against them. Eventually, this turned into a civil war.
  • New Economic Policy

    New Economic Policy
    March 1921
    Put in place as the reinvented War Communism, The New Economic Policy was a positive advancement. It allowed some private trade, and peasants would be allowed to sell surplus. Small factories could even be bought and put under a form of private ownership. The New Economic Policy resulted in some rich(er) middle class people and some/few wealthy workers. The new policy was on the right track towards economic recovery.
  • Treaty of Rapallo

    Treaty of Rapallo
    1922
    Previously avoiding Germany due to their dislike of communism, Russia decided they needed to rebuild their industrial base, and asked Germany for help. In the Treaty of Rapallo, both countries were strategically benefitted. Russia would manufacture illegal war material for Germany, which was banned by the Treaty of Versailles, and in return, Russia would receive steel manufacturing technology. Quietly, this would prepare Germany for WWII.
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    Five Year Plan

    Stalin put the five year plans into effect hoping for the rapid industrializing of Russia. The first one started in 1928 and gave all factories and farms quotes to meet then the government would collectivise it, this also happened with the land. Collectivization meant all land would be collected and the farmers and workers would be divided up and given land to work on. All work would be shared, and no farm owners existed. Heavy Industry also came into play. The five year plans resulted in great
  • Period: to

    Five Year Plans Continued

    farms quotes to meet then the government would collectivise it, this also happened with the land. Collectivization meant all land would be collected and the farmers and workers would be divided up and given land to work on. All work would be shared, and no All work would be shared, and no farm owners existed. Heavy Industry also came into play. The five year plans resulted in great accomplishments, but many deaths. More and more forced labour camps known as Gulags appeared across Russia, but the
  • Period: to

    Five Year Plans - Continued 2

    . More and more forced labour camps known as Gulags appeared across Russia, but the industry grew in size and Russia became a competitor to other industrializing countries. Soon, people became sick of the poor work conditions and again Russia’s population began to rebel. This led to Stalin’s great purges.
  • Kellogg-Briand Pact

    Kellogg-Briand Pact
    Russia, Germany and 64 other nations signed the Kellogg-Briand pact, saying they would solve disputes peacefully without war and only use their armies in self-defence against aggressive countries.
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    Normalization

    1932 - 1935
    The USSR jumped at any chance for collective security after the effects of WWI and the Civil War. They signed the Kellogg- Briand Pact in 1928 the League of Nations in 1934. The USSR continued to sign non-aggression treaties all throughout 1932 to 1935 including ones with Poland, Estonia, Latvia, Finland, Czechoslovakia and Romania.
  • League of Nations

    League of Nations
    1934
    On September 18th of 1934, the USSR joined the League of Nations. This was a critical step in showing that they were back on track economically and were ready to join the rest of the world in participating in world affairs. Along with many other peace treaties they signed, joining the League of Nations was based on expediency rather than Mutual Trust. The League of Nations helped to build up collective security upon Russia.
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    The Purges

    1934-1941
    Stalin had his secret police, the NKVD 'remove old enemies' - old heroes of the revolution who were a threat to him and his power. He would try them in court and then have them executed for "plotting to overthrow the government". The purges killed many people of power and importance, which led to the failure of Russia during the future war, as he had killed many leaders of the army and military.
  • Nazi-Soviet Pact

    Nazi-Soviet Pact
    A beaming Josef Stalin (rear right) along with Foreign Minister Molotov (beside him) watches Nazi Foreign Minister Ribbentrop sign the Non-Aggression Pact for Germany
    As Hitler came to power in Germany, the Nazi-Soviet Pact was signed. It was a strict neutrality pact between the USSR and Germany, which essentially gave the Soviets time to prepare for the war, while Hitler got a one-front war with the west. A secret part of the agreement was the division of Poland.