A period in time where the ancient Hebrews were held captive in Mesopotamian Babylon.
Period: 1378 to 1417
The Great Schism
A period in time when there were three separate Popes, Urban VI, Clement the VII, and Alexander V which created a schism in the church.
Execution of Jan Hus
Jan Hus was a religious reformer who translated the Bible into common vernacular and attacked the selling of indulgences.
Gutenberg's Printing Press
Johannes Gutenberg invents the movable type printing press. This makes printing books much easier and cheaper. It also allowed for the spreading of ideas.
Treaty of Tordesillas
An agreement that Portugal would get everything East of a line down the Atlantic Ocean (Brazil) and Spain would get everything West of it (the "New World").
Period: 1501 to 1504
Michelangelo was sculpting "David", one of the most popular statues, for the Florence cathedral.
Period: 1509 to 1547
Reign of Henry VIII
Henry VIII was best known for the six wives he had and the two he had beheaded. He was able to marry divorce multiple women because Parliament had passed the Acts of Supremacy making him one of the heads of the Church of England, instead of the Pope.
Acts of Supremacy
Acts that allowed two English Monarchs to be the head of the Church of England.
Tetzel Sells Indulgences
Johann Tetzel started to sell indulgences, with the encouragement from the Pope, saying people could resolve their sin and free their relatives from Purgatory by buying indulgences.
Oct 31, 1517
Martin Luther wrote about his grievances with the Catholic Church, mostly about indulgences, and posted it to a board outside the Church to start a discussion.
Diet of Worms
Martin Luther is called to the Diet of Worms by Charles V and Luther is told to recant. He does not and he adds that there are only 2 sacraments compared to the 7 in Catholicism and that only #faithalone is required to get into heaven. He was excommunicated from the church.
Period: 1524 to 1525
German Peasant's War
During the Protestant Reformation, Martin Luther standing up to the religious authorities inspired German peasants to stand up to the nobles who were oppressing them. Ultimately the revolt was brutally crushed by the nobility.
A meeting at Marburg's castle in which a debate about the Eucharist between Martin Luther and Ulrich Zwingli. Martin Luther believed that Christ's body was present in everything, which would include the bread and wine. Zwingli argued that the bread and wine were not actually the body and blood of Jesus Christ, but rather a symbol of it.
Period: 1534 to 1535
A community of Anabaptists run by an "Old Testament Theocracy", meaning you could marry multiple wives. The Lutheran and Catholic Church both agreed that they did not want this to exist so they laid siege to the commune. They would publicly torture members of the Munster Commune and then kill them. They would even put the three leaders' corpses in cages and then hang them from the church as an example.
"Institutes of the Christian Religion" by John Calvin is an important book for Protestantism. In it, he describes how God has absolute power and is omnipotent whereas humanity is absolutely weak.
Jesuits are members of the Society of Jesus which was a religious group that was supposed to spread the Roman Catholic faith.
Period: 1544 to
Reign of William "The Silent" of Orange
William "The Silent" of Orange was a political and military leader during the Dutch Revolt and fought for personal and religious freedom. He helped create the independent Dutch Republic.
Period: 1545 to 1563
The Council of Trent
It was a council that took place in the city of Trent in Italy. It was used to defend Catholicism and combat any critiques of Protestant Reformers.
The Book of Common Prayer
This book was made to for Anglicans to direct worship in the Church of England.
Period: 1553 to 1558
Reign of Mary Tudor
During her reign, Mary had repealed the Acts of Supremacy but is most known for burning many people at the stake in an effort to reinstate Catholicism, hence her nickname, "Bloody Mary".
Peace of Augsburg
This decided that the ruler of a region picks the religion. This decision solidified the division of Christendom.
Period: 1558 to
Reign of Elizabeth Tudor
Elizabeth Tudor helped instate the Church of England and also helped defeat the Spanish Armada.
Period: 1562 to
French Wars of Religion
This was a civil war between the Huguenots and Catholics. Some nobility converted to Protestantism to slyly become independent of France. Many fights broke out between Calvinist lords and Catholic lords.
A summary of what English Anglican Christians believe and teach. The general beliefs of the Church of England.
Period: 1568 to
The Dutch Revolt
The Netherlands revolted against Spain because of high taxation, unemployment, and fears of persecution. The Spanish lost and the Dutch Republic was created.
Aug 24, 1572
Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre
The king's sister, Margaret of Valois, was getting married to Henry of Navarre to pacify the Huguenots and the Catholics. Instead, Huguenot wedding guests and other Protestants in Paris were slaughtered.
Union of Untrecht
The Union of Untrecht allied the seven northern provinces who then declared independence from Spain, forming the United Provinces of the Netherlands.
The Defeat of the Spanish Armada
The Spanish Armada was defeated by the English due to the weather and because English ships were smaller and therefore more maneuverable and had better firing power.
Edict of Nantes
Henry IV of France issued a document that allowed freedom of belief and public worship to Calvinists which ended the French Wars of Religion.
Thirty Years' War
A religious war between German Protestants and Roman Catholics. Overtime, it became more about who would eventually govern Europe.
Revocation of the Edict of Nantes
The Edict of Nantes was revoked which left Huguenots a choice of either converting to Catholicism or going to prison for life.