Period: 1800 BCE to 900 BCE
Mayan civilization (300 BCE – 800 CE)Mayan peoples began to settle in the Yucatan area of what is now Mexico between 2600 BC and 1800 BC. The Ancient Maya developed the science of astronomy, calendar systems and hieroglyphic writing. They were also known for creating elaborate ceremonial architecture, such as pyramids, temples, palaces and observatories. These structures were all built without metal tools.
Their decline is unknown for many reasons
Jewish DiasporaThe Romans took over Isreal so the Jews got dispersed from Israel. They left to the Mediterranean Sea and in France and Great Britain. The Jews split up and spread around the world, but they still practiced the religion and were taught the religion by the Rabbis
Roman Republic establishedIt began when the Romans overthrew their Etruscan conquerors in 509 B.C.E. North of Rome, the Etruscans had ruled over the Romans for hundreds of years. Once free, the Romans established a republic, a government in which citizens elected representatives to rule on their behalf. A republic is quite different from a democracy, in which every citizen is expected to play an active role in governing the state.
Siddhartha Guatama travels and teaches ( 500 BCE)The Buddha was at first hesitant to teach. According to legend, it was then the king of gods, Brahma, convinced Buddha to teach, and he got up from his spot under the Bodhi tree and set out to do just that. To them and others who had gathered, he preached his first sermon (known as Setting in Motion the Wheel of the Dharma),in which he explained the Four Noble Truths and the Eightfold Path, which became the pillars of Buddhism.For the remainder of his life Buddha traveled, preaching the Dharma.
Period: 479 BCE to 221 BCE
Confucius is teaching what will become the Analects (500 BCE)Following his death in 479 BC,followers of Confucius wrote about aspects of his life and teaching they felt were important.These writings continued the teaching of Confucian philosophy.They were added to over the next several centuries.Quotes from Confucius and his disciples,important events in his life,and descriptions of him are today called The Analects of Confucius or just The Analects.It focused on creating ethical models of family and public interaction and setting educational standards.
Period: 475 BCE to 221 BCE
Era of Warring States Begins (475 CE)The Warring States Period (475–221 BC) was an era of division in ancient China. States declared independence from the Zhou Dynasty, and kingdoms fought for territory, during this period. From 5th century BCE to the unification of China by the Qin Dynasty in 221 BCE when regional warlords battled amongst each other and there was no ruler.
Period: 431 BCE to 404 BCE
Peloponnesian War (431 BCE)It was an ancient Greek war fought by the Delian League led by Athens against the Peloponnesian League led by Sparta. The wealth, prestige, policies, and power of Athens caused resentment among other city-states. A plague that killed many Athenians helped Sparta defeat Athens. The Peloponnesian War weakened all of the Greek city-states for 50 years.The reason for the war was Athenian control of the Delian League, the vast naval alliance that allowed it to dominate the Mediterranean Sea.
Daoism BeginsTaoism began in the in the late 4th century BC under the work of Laozi, in the Tao Te Ching. Tao means way and Taoism is sometimes expressed as the flow of the universe' Taoism's central value is naturalness, which one achieves by freeing themselves from desire and selfish thoughts and behaviors and embracing simplicity in life. Taoism is also sometimes referred to as Daoism.
Phlip of Macedon conquer the Greek city states (336 BCE)The Battle of Chaeronea was fought in 338 BC, near the city of Chaeronea , between the Macedonians led by Philip II of Macedon and an alliance of some of city-states led by Athens and Thebes. The battle was the culmination of Philip's campaign in Greece (339–338 BC) and resulted in a decisive victory for the Macedonians.
Alexander the Great defeats the Persians (330 BCE)In 334 BCE, Alexander of Macedon invaded the Persian Empire, and by 330 BCE, the Persian king, Darius III, was dead—murdered by one his generals. Alexander claimed the Persian throne. Alexander left the officials and institutions of the cities he captured in place to manage his massive empire. After his death, one of his generals, Seleucus, gained control of much of the territory that had been the Achaemenid empire.
Period: 264 BCE to 241 BCE
First of the Punic Wars (Rome v. Carthage) – (264 BCE)In 264 BC – Romans cross into Sicily to aid the Mamertines
In 260 BC – Roman navy uses corvus to win at Mylae
In 256 BC - Sea Battle of Cape Ecnomus, Rome wins without the use of the corvus
In 255 BC – Consul Regulus defeated by Xanthippus, the Spartan, in Africa
In 241 BC – Carthage tires of war, sues for peace
Outcome – Rome takes Sicily, then Sardinia and Corsica. Carthage pays a heavy fine.
Ashoka dies (232 BCE)Ashoka ruled for an estimated 36 years and died in 232 BCE. Legend states that during his cremation, his body burned for seven days and nights. After his death, the Mauryan dynasty lasted just fifty more years until his empire stretched over almost all of the Indian subcontinent.
Period: 221 BCE to 21 BCE
Qin Dynasty starts building walls (221 BCE)Around 220 B.C., Qin Shi Huang, the first emperor of a unified China under the Qin Dynasty, ordered that earlier fortifications between states be removed and a number of existing walls along the northern border be joined into a single system that would extend for more than 10,000 li. He directed the building to prevent attacks from Mongolians and Manchus.
Han Dynasty establishedFollowing a mass revolt in the Qin Empire in 210 B.C. and brief control by warlord Xiang Yu, Liu Bang seized the title of emperor of the Han Dynasty in 202 B.C. He established the Han capital of Chang’an along the Wei River in one of the few surviving palaces of the Qin Dynasty and took the name Emperor Gaozu. The 7,000-mile Silk Road flourished during the Han dynasty, allowing trade between China and India. Records of the ''Grand Historian”, was written during the Han Dynasty by Sima Qian.
Julius Caesar murdered (44 BCE)The assassination of Caesar was the result of a conspiracy by many Roman senators led by Gaius Cassius Longinus, Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus, and Marcus Junius Brutus. They stabbed Caesar to death in a location adjacent to the Theatre of Pompey on the Ides of March 15 March 44 BC. The conspirators were unable to restore the Roman Republic, and the ramifications of the assassination led to the Liberators' civil war and ultimately to the Principate period of the Roman Empire.
Period: 27 BCE to 180
Pax RomanaThis 200-year period saw unprecedented peace and economic prosperity throughout the Empire, which spanned from England in the north to Morocco in the south and Iraq in the east. During the Pax Romana, the Roman Empire reached its peak in terms of land area, and its population swelled to an estimated 70 million people. Rome's citizens were relatively secure, and the government generally maintained law, order, and stability. The Pax Romana began when Octavian became the leader of the Roman Empire.
Christianity beginsChristianity began in the 1st century AD as a Jewish sect in Judea but quickly spread throughout the Roman empire. Derp early persecution of Christians, it later became the state religion. It's based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth, as described in the New Testament. Its adherents, known as Christians, believe that Jesus Christ is the Son of God and savior of all people, whose coming as the Messiah was prophesied in the Old Testament.
Period: 9 to 23
Xin Dynasty briefly interrupts the Han (9- 23 CE)The Han dynasty was briefly interrupted by the Xin Dynasty (9-23 CE). This interregnum separates the Han into two periods: the Western Han (206 BCE - 9 CE) and Eastern Han (25-220 CE
Spanning over four centuries, the period of the Han Dynasty is considered a golden age in Chinese history. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government, known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms The Han Dynasty came to an end in 220 AD.
Silk Road establishedThe Silk Road was an ancient network of trade routes that connected the East and West.It was central to cultural interaction between the regions for many centuries.Though silk was the major trade item exported from China,many other goods were traded,as well as religions,syncretic philosophies,sciences,and technologies. Diseases, most notably plague,also spread along the Silk Road.In addition to economic trade,the Silk Road was a route for cultural trade among the civilizations along its network.
Final collapse of the Han Dynasty (220 CE)The end of the Han dynasty roughly coincides with the tumultuous reign of the Han dynasty's last ruler, Emperor Xian. The Han dynasty ended in 220 when Cao Cao's son and heir, Cao Pi, pressured Emperor Xian into abdicating in his favour. At the end of the Han Dynasty, the dynasty fell into chaos and corruption within the eunuchs empress' clan, and Confucian scholar officials caused for the dynasty to slowly fall apart; power and control was lost.
Period: 221 to 206
Legalism is a dominant belief system (Qin)Legalism became the official philosophy of the Qin Dynasty (221 - 206 BCE) when the first emperor of China, Shi Huangti, rose to power and banned all other philosophies as a corrupting influence. Confucianism was especially condemned because of its insistence on the basic goodness of human beings. During the Qin Dynasty any books which did not support the Legalist philosophy were burned and writers, philosophers, and teachers of other philosophies were executed.
Roman Empire divided in 2 by Diocletian (284 CE)By 285 CE the Roman Empire had grown so vast that it was no longer feasible to govern all the provinces from the central seat of Rome. The Emperor Diocletian divided the empire into halves with the Eastern Empire governed out of Byzantium (later Constantinople) and the Western Empire governed from Rome. In the east, it continued as the Byzantine Empire until the death of Constantine XI and the fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Turks in 1453 CE.
Constantine’s Edict of Milan ends Roman persecution of Christians (319 CE)The Edict of Milan was a letter signed by the Roman emperors Constantine and Licinius, that proclaimed religious toleration in the Roman Empire. The letter was issued in February, 313 AD, shortly after the emperor Diocletian and stopped the unfair treatment of Christians. The decree concludes with the intention that the edict "shall be announced everywhere and brought to the knowledge of all."
Period: 319 to 550
Gupta Dynasty established (375 CE)The Gupta Empire stretched across parts of southern India between c. 320 and 550 CE. They are noted for its achievements in the arts, architecture, sciences, religion, and philosophy. Chandragupta I (320 – 335 CE) started a rapid expansion of the Gupta Empire and soon established himself as the first sovereign ruler of the empire. After Skandagupta’s death(Chandra's great-great-great grandson) the dynasty became embroiled with domestic conflicts.This resulted in a decline in law and order.
Mauryan empire established by Chandragupta Maurya ( 321 BCE)Chandragupta Maurya c. 321 - c. 297 BCE, known as Sandrakottos to the Greeks, was the founder of the Maurya dynasty (4th to 2nd century BCE) and is credited with the setting up of the first (nearly) pan-Indian empire. The trade and economy of the Mauryan dynasty was one of their most influential achievements.
Constantinople becomes capital of Rome (340 CE)The city was founded as Byzantium in the 7th century B.C. It was renamed Constantinople 330 A.D. when the Roman emperor Constantine I moved his capital there from Rome (Encylopedia Americana). As the capital of the Byzantine Empire, Constantinople became a great cultural, economic, religious, and administrative center. Up until 1453 the city withstood all attacks with the exception of Fourth Crusade's treachery (The Shining Fortress).
Collapse of Western Roman Empire (476 CE)In 476 C.E. Romulus, the last of the Roman emperors in the west, was overthrown by the Germanic leader Odoacer, who became the first Barbarian to rule in Rome. The order that the Roman Empire had brought to western Europe for 1000 years was no more.
White Huns take down the Gupta empire (550 CE)The Huna People, also known as Huns, invaded Gupta territory and caused significant damage to the empire. The Gupta Empire ended in 550 CE, when it disintegrated into regional kingdoms after a series of weak rulers and invasions from the east, west, and north.