King Charles VII of France invaded Italy beginning a series of wars in which France and Spain vied for control of the Italian Peninsula. During the Italian wars control of Italy bounced between France and Spain and later England became involved.
Oct 31, 1517
Martin Luther Writes 95 Thesis
Luther wrote 95 thesis attacking the pardon merchants.
Edict of Worms
An imperial order that Charles declared Luther an outlaw and a heretic.
While peasants were becoming more disgruntled by high taxes and a lack of power, reformation preachers supported the idea of freedom. These factors combined, thousands of German peasants stormed castles and monasteries, this rebellion was known as the peasants war.
Swiss Civil War
Zwingli reforms were adopted in many cities, a bitter war between Swiss protestants and Catholics broke out.
Anabaptist settle in Münster
Catholics and Protestants believed anabaptist were radicals who threatened society executing them, resulting in the Anabaptist fleeing to Münster.
Act of Supremacy in England
States that henry the 8th is the head of the England church.
Thomas More Executed
Henry executed Thomas because he refuse to accept the terms of the act and would not take an oath.
John Calvins Institutes of the Christian Religion
Calvin wrote the book Institutes of the Christian Religion expressing ideas about God ,salvation, and human nature.
Jesuit Order Founded
Pope created religious order for followers called Society of Jesus, and the members were called Jesuits, the Jesuits focused on founding schools, converting non-christians, and stopping the spread of protestantism.
Start of Roman Inquisition
Catholic Church established a church court called the Roman Inquisition, the main purpose was to impose religious uniformity, especially on converted Jews and Muslims
Council of Trent
Pope called a council of church leaders to meet in Tent where Catholics bishops and cardinals agreed on several doctrines. Some of the things the doctrines covered were the churches interpretations of the bible were final, Christians needed faith for salvation, bible and church traditions were equally powerful, and indulgences were a valid expressions of faith.
Peace of Augsburg
Princes in Augsburg agreed that each ruler would decide the religions of his state.
Reign of Elizabeth I
Elizabeth set up the Church of England or Anglican Church, to moderate Catholics and moderate Protestants might both accept.
Scotland becomes Calvinist
Protestant nobles led by Knox made Calvinism Scotlands religion.
St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
The hatred between Catholics and Huguenots often led to violence, one of the most violent fights they had is known as the St. Bartholomew's day Massacre. Catholic mobs hunted for Protestants to murder them, this massacre later spread to other cities as well.
Edict of Nantes
After the Huguenots fought for years with the Catholics the fighting ended when their leader Henry of Navarre became Catholic. His conversion led to political stability and he later made the Edict of Nates that granted religious freedom to Protestants.