Modern World HIstory - AE
Italian WarsIn 1494 King Charles VII of France invaded Italy. This began a series of wars in which France and Spain vein for control of the Italian Peninsula.
Oct 31, 1517
Martin Luther Writes 95 ThesesLuther took a public stand against the Friar Johann Tetzel, who raised money by selling indulgences. Selling indulgences is when you pay to go to heaven. Luther wrote 95 formal statements attacking the church against selling them.
Peasant's WarThis was cause by the changes of the Reformation. They wanted freedom from oppression by nobles and landlords. As the uprising spread, some peasant groups organized armies.
Act of Supremacy in EnglandDefined the right of Henry VIII to be supreme head on earth of the Church of England.
John Calvin's Institutes of the Christian ReligionThis was a book that he wrote to express ideas about God, salvation, and human nature. It was a summary of Protestant theology.
Jesuit order foundThe Jesuit order was founded by St.Ignatious of Loyola, a Spanish soldier turned priest. The purpose was to help others find and seek God in all things. The group founded schools throughout Europe, converted non-christians to Catholic, and stopped the spread of Protestantism.
Start of Roman InquisitionIt began as a part of the Catholic Church's Counter-Reformation against the spread of Protestantism.
Nicolaus CopernicusBelieved that the stars, earth, and other planets revolved around the sun. This is the Heliocentric theory, or sun-centered.
Council of TrentThe Council of Trent had four important doctrines.
1. Church's interpretation of the Bible was final
2. Christians needed faith and good works for salvation
3. the Bible and church tradition were equally powerful authorities for Guiding Christians
4. Indulgences were valid expressions of faith, but selling them was banned
Peace of AugsburgKing Charles, weary of fighting, ordered all German princes, both protestant and catholic, to go to Augsburg. There they agreed that each ruler would decide the religion for their state.
Reign of ElizabethElizabeth was determined to return her kingdom to Protestantism. Parliament followed her wishes in 1559 and set up the Church of England, or Angelican church, with Elizabeth as its head.This was to be the only legal church in England.
Scotland Becomes CalvinistA Scottish preacher named John Knox, and when he returned to Scotland he tried to spread Calvinism. In the 1560s, Protestant nobles led by Knox, made Calvinism Scotlands official religion.
St. Bartholomew's Day massacreThe primary cause of the massacre was the diverse religious identification of the people and their intolerance for other belief systems.
Francis BaconFrancis urged scientists to experiment and them drawcthe conclusion. This approach is called empiricism, or the experimental method.
Edict of NantesThe Edict of Nantes, issued under Henry of Navarre after he ascended to the French throne as Henry IV, effectively ended the French Wars of Religion by granting official tolerance to Protestantism.
Galileo GalileiDeveloped the telescope to observe details and enlarge far off objects. Confirmed the sun was the middle of the solar system with the capernican theory.
Published Material - Starry Messenger(1610)
Bialogue concerning the two chief world systems(1632)
Quotes - "and yet it moves"
"mathematics is the alphabet with which god has written the universe"
Rene DescartesBelieved science can improve peoples lives. Developed an analytical geometry.
Published Material - Discource on Method(1637)
Meditations on first philosophy(1641)
Quotes - "I think, therefor I am"
"Doubt is the origin of wisdom"
Thomas HobbesSaid that human are selfish, and need a strong ruler to get law and order. Created the Social Contract, an agreement made through which an organized society is brought to existence, a Monarch.
John LockeNatural or human rights -> life, liberty, one property. If the government fails to do so citizens have a right to overthrow.
Published Material - An essay concerning human rights understanding(1689)
- Two treaties of civil government(1689)
Quotes - "Being all equal and independent, no one ought to harm another in his life, health, liberty, or possessions"
- "The only fence against the world is a thorough knowledge of it"
Baron de MontesquieuBelieved that the separation of power would keep any individual or group from gaining total control of the government.
Jean JacquesArgued that civilization corrupts peoples natural goodness.
believed that the only good government was one that freely formed by the people and guided by general will. he viewed the social contract as an agreement among free individuals to create a society and government. all people are equal and titles of nobility should be abolished. inspired many leaders of the French Revolution.
VoltaireHe fought for tolerance, reason, freedom of religious belief, and freedom of speech. He used his writing as a form of fighting.