M401 Unit 1

  • 100

    Epitaph of Seikilos, 1st century C.E.

  • 313

    Emperor Constantine legalizes Christianity in Roman Empire.

  • 476

    Collapse of Western Roman Empire

  • Sep 7, 700

    Beginning of standardization of church songs, became Gregorian chant

  • Sep 7, 751

    Pepin the Short becomes king of the Franks

    Pepin the Short seeks to import Gregorian chant into Frankish empire.
  • Sep 7, 1000

    Guido of Arezzo, 11th century

    Developed 1st musical staff - made of 4 lines, each a 3rd apart.
  • Sep 7, 1000

    Mass for Christmas Day, 11th century

    Vespers for Christmas Day was probably around this time as well.
  • Sep 8, 1000

    Growth of cities and middle class in Europe, 11th century

    Rise of secular song and dance music.
  • Sep 7, 1025

    Micrologus by Guido of Arezzo

    Practical guide for singers - discusses notes, intervals, scales, the modes, melodic composition, and improvised polyphony.
  • Sep 7, 1030

    Victima paschali laudes, 1st half 11th century

    Sequence, by Wipo of Burgundy
  • Sep 7, 1054

    Permanent division of the Church: Roman Catholic Church in the West, Byzantine Church in the East

    Western Roman Church becomes the Roman Catholic Church. The Byzantine Church becomes what is later known as the Eastern Orthodox Church.
  • Sep 8, 1066

    Norman Conquest

  • Sep 8, 1080

    Use of free organum starts in late 11th century

  • Sep 8, 1100

    Alleluia Justus ut palma from the treatise Ad organum faciendem

    Alleluia in free organum. Free organum was start to polyphony being sung by soloists rather than choir. Ad organum faciendem gave rules for improvising and composing in free organum.
  • Sep 8, 1100

    Development of Aquitanian polyphony, early 12th century

  • Sep 8, 1100

    Jubilemus, exultemus

    Versus in Aquitanian polyphony. A versus is a rhythmic, rhymed metrical poem in Latin on a sacred or serious topic.
  • Sep 8, 1151

    In principio omnes from Ordo virtutum, Hildegard von Bingen

    Liturgical drama.
  • Sep 8, 1170

    Can vei la lauzeta mover, Bernard de Ventadorn

    Troubadour song from southern France, in Occitan. Deals with subject of fin' amors.
  • Sep 8, 1170

    A chantar, Comtessa de Dia, 2nd half 12th century

    Trobairitz song. deals with fin' amors, but more realistic and direct than those usually written by men. AAB form.
  • Sep 8, 1180

    Notre Dame polyphony developed in late 12th and early 13th centuries

  • Sep 8, 1180

    Viderunt Omnes, Leoninus, 2nd half of 12th century

    Notre Dame polyphonic setting of the Gradual for Christmas Day, Viderunt Omnes. Uses organum and discant style.
  • Sep 8, 1190

    Clausulae on Dominus, from Viderunt Omnes, late 12th or early 13th century

  • Sep 8, 1198

    Viderunt Omnes, Perotinus

    Organum quadruplum. From the Notre Dame school of polyphony.
  • Sep 8, 1200

    Evidence of vielle, hurdy-gurdy and psaltery in 13th century Bible

  • Sep 8, 1200

    Ave virgo virginum, late 12th or early 13th century

    Conductus from the Notre Dame school. AAB form. As a conductus, the tenor line is newly composed rather than borrowed from chant.
  • Sep 8, 1200

    Motets on Tenor Dominus

    Motet on the melisma on Dominus from the Gradual for Christmas Day, Viderunt omnes. Motets added newly written Latin text to the upper voices of existing discant clausulae. Originally developed at the Notre Dame school.
  • Sep 11, 1200

    Motets on tenor dominus, 13th century

    Originated as adding text to upper voices of discant clausula, later elaborated and reworked in different ways.
  • Sep 8, 1228

    Palastinalied, Walther von der Vogelweide

    Minnelied (German troubadour love song), crusade song. In Middle High German. AAB form.
  • Sep 11, 1250

    Summer is icumen in

    English Rota, or canon at the unison.
  • Sep 8, 1260

    De ma dame vient/Dieus, comment porroie/Omnes, Adam de la Halle, 1260s-1280s

    Franconian motet. Franconian motets tended to have upper voices that differed in rhythm, and rhythmic patterns were rarely repeated.
  • Sep 8, 1280

    Non sofre Santa Maria from Cantigas de Santa Maria

    Cantiga in Spanish honoring Virgin Mary. Associated with dancing due to refrain. AAB form, B music used for refrain. Miniatures show shawms, double reed instrument similar to oboe.
  • Sep 8, 1280

    La quarte estampie royal, from Le manuscrit du roi, late 13th century

    Estampie, French dance in fast triple meter. Has several endings, each played twice with 2 different endings, first open, then closed.
  • Sep 8, 1284

    Robins m'aime from Jeu de Robin et de Marion, Adam de la Halle

    Trouvere song/ rondeau from musical play. In Old French. AA'A.
  • Sep 8, 1285

    Anonymous IV

    Treatise that discusses the Notre Dame school of polyphony, the composers and the music itself.
  • Partition of Roman Empire

  • Ambrosian chant, the songs of the Milanese rite, flourishes between 568 and 744

  • Charlemagne crowned emperor of Holy Roman Empire

    Helped to strengthen ties between Rome and the Frankish Empire and bring Gregorian chant to Frankish lands.
  • First attempts at notation

  • Musica enchiriadis, 9th century

    Describes 8 church modes, gives exercises for locating semitones in chant, and explains consonances and how they're used to sing polyphony.
  • Tropes on Puer Natis and Melisma, late 10th century

    This trope added new words and music before the Introit Puer natus est from the Mass for Christmas day as well as an untexted melisma at the end of the chant. The first trope is also a liturgical drama.
  • Chant standardized around 9th century

  • Europe begins to divide into modern countries.

  • Organa from Musica Enchiriadis, ca. 850-890

    Parallel organum and mixed parallel and oblique organum.
  • Use of heighted or diastematic neumes

    Heighted or diastematic neumes, or neumes placed at varying heights above the text to indicate the relative size and direction of intervals, were used in the 10th and 11th centuries.