Islam Civil Wars and the Black Stone

Timeline created by gunker9387
In History
  • Jan 1, 656

    First Civil War

    First Civil War
    Also known as the First Fitna, a civil war within the early Islamic state which resulted in the overthrowing of the Rashidun caliphs and the establishment of the Umayyad dynasty. It began when the caliph Uthman ibn Affan was assassinated by Egyptian rebels in 656 and continued through the four-year reign of Uthman's successor Ali ibn Abi Talib. It ended in 661 when Ali's heir Hasan ibn Ali concluded a treaty acknowledging the rule of Muawiyah, the first Umayyad caliph.
  • Nov 7, 656

    The Battle of the Camel

    The Battle of the Camel
    Sometimes called the Battle of Jamal or the Battle of Bassorah, took place at Basra, Iraq on 7 November 656. The beginning of the Battle of the Camel started as Kharjites spread false rumors to all the companions of Muhammed including his wife A'isha. A'isha heard about the killing of Uthman (644-656), the third Caliph. in this battle, the camel of Ayesha became the main target of attack
  • Jul 26, 657

    Battle of Siffin

    Battle of Siffin
    Following the murder of Uthman ibn Affan, the caliphate Ali ibn Abi Talib took over. Ali sent an envoy, Jarir, to Syria to seek a peaceful solution after Uthman was murdered; Muawiyah's large army marched out to meet Ali. On July 26, 657, Ali and his general, Malik ibn Ashter, began a massive attack on Muawiyah's lines. Arbitration ended these attacks.
  • Jan 1, 661

    Mu'awiyah Becomes Caliph

    Ali is assassinated by Muslims, and Mu'awiyah seizes power, ending the Rashidun Caliphate and establishing a family dynasty.
  • Jan 1, 680

    Death of Husayn

    Husayn, 'Ali's son and Muhammad's grandson, challenged the rule of Yazid I, accusing the caliph of corruption and insisting that proper leadership of Islam belongs to the descendents of Muhammad. He and his small band of followers were massacred near Karbala (present-day Iraq).
  • Jan 1, 680

    The Second Civil War

    The Second Fitna was a period of general political and military disorder that afflicted the Islamic empire during the early Umayyad dynasty, following the death of the first Umayyad caliph Muawiyah I.
  • Jan 1, 691

    The Dome of the Rock Built

    The Dome of the Rock Built
    The Dome of the Rock is built in Jerusalem. It is the oldest Islamic monument, one of Jerusalem's and Islam's most recognizable structures. It is located on the Temple Mount in the Old City of Jerusalem.
  • Jan 1, 700

    Sufism

    Sufism
    Muslims lay the foundations of Sufism, a mystical movement within Islam that focuses on personal experience with God.
  • Jan 1, 711

    Conquest of Hispania

    Conquest of Hispania
    Muslims cross the Strait of Gibraltar and invade the Iberian Peninsula. They control large portions of the peninsula for centuries, living with Jews and Christians and shaping Spanish history.
  • Jan 1, 732

    Battle of Tours

    Battle of Tours
    Muslims advance into present-day France via the Iberian Peninsula--halted by the armies of Frankish leader Charles Martel in the Battle of Tours.
  • Jan 1, 744

    Third Civil War

    Third Civil War
    Muslims claiming familial ties to Muhammad challenge the ruling Umayyads. Small battles lead to a full military rebellion and the eventual defeat of the Umayyad Caliphate.
  • Jan 1, 750

    Abbasids take over

    The Abbasid family establish Baghdad as their capital after the overthrow of the Umayyads and appoint Abu al-'Abbas al-Saffah as first caliph of the Abbasid Caliphate. They rule for over five centuries, bringing Islam to the height of its civilization.
  • Jan 1, 899

    Rise of Qarmatians

    Qarmatians, a religious group , established a religious utopian republic in 899 CE. They are most famed for their revolt against the Abbasid Caliphate in 899.
  • Nov 7, 929

    The Block Stone is STOLEN

    The Block Stone is STOLEN
    The Qarmatians attack Mecca. During this time, they take the sacred Black Stone from the Ka’bah.
  • Jan 1, 946

    The Black Stone is RETURNED

    The Black Stone is RETURNED
    The Qarmatians restore the Black Stone to the Holy Ka’bah.