Industrial Revolution

  • Thomas Malthus

    Thomas Malthus
    Thomas Robert Malthus FRS was an English cleric and scholar, influential in the fields of political economy and demography. Malthus wrote an essay on the Principle of Population, which explained his predictions and changed the view of many people. He believed that through preventative checks and positive checks, the population would be controlled to balance the food supply with the population level.
  • Robert Owen

    Robert Owen
    Robert Owen, a Welsh textile manufacturer, philanthropic social reformer, and one founder of utopian socialism and the cooperative movement. Owen is best known for efforts to improve working conditions for his factory workers and his promotion of experimental socialistic communities.
  • George Stephenson

    George Stephenson
    George Stephenson, also known as "Father of Railways" was a British civil engineer and mechanical engineer. Self-help advocate Samuel Smiles particularly praised his achievements. He also constructed his first locomotive, 'Blucher', for hauling coal at Killingworth Colliery near Newcastle he invented a safety lamp for use in coalmines, nicknamed the 'Geordie' was appointed engineer for the construction of the Stockton and Darlington railway.
  • Mutual-Aid Societies

    Mutual-Aid Societies
    A mutual aid society is an organization formed to provide mutual aid, benefit, and/or insurance among its members. Benefits are not necessarily monetary and may include services and social activities.
  • Corporations

    Corporations
    A corporation is an organization—usually a group of people or a company—authorized by the state to act as a single entity and recognized as such in law for certain purposes. Early incorporated entities were established by charter. Most jurisdictions now allow the creation of new corporations through registration.
  • Cotton Gin

    Cotton Gin
    A cotton gin – meaning "cotton engine" – is a machine that quickly and easily separates cotton fibers from their seeds, enabling much greater productivity than manual cotton separation. While it was true that the cotton gin reduced the labor of removing seeds, it did not reduce the need for slaves to grow and pick the cotton. In fact, the opposite occurred. Cotton growing became so profitable for the planters that it greatly increased their demand for both land and slave labor.
  • Interchangeable Parts

    Interchangeable Parts
    Interchangeable parts are parts that are, for practical purposes, identical. They are made to specifications that ensure that they are so nearly identical that they will fit into any assembly of the same type. One such part can freely replace another, without any custom fitting, such as filing.
  • Charles Darwin

    Charles Darwin
    Charles Robert Darwin was an English naturalist, geologist and biologist, best known for his contributions to the science of evolution. His proposition that all species of life have descended over time from common ancestors is now widely accepted. He also developed the Darwinism which is a theory stating that all species of organisms arise and develop through the natural selection of small, inherited variations that increase the individual's ability to compete, survive, and reproduce.
  • Alfred Nobel

    Alfred Nobel
    Alfred Bernhard Nobel was a Swedish businessman, chemist, engineer, inventor, and philanthropist. He held 355 different patents, dynamite being the most famous, even the synthetic element nobelium was named after him. Nobel made the Nobel Prizes because of his father Immanuel, an engineer, later lifted the family's fortunes by helping to develop the first naval mines successfully deployed in warfare. Also who is the man who developed nitroglycerin.
  • Socialism

    Socialism
    Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterized by social ownership of the means of production and workers self-management as well as the political theories and movements associated with them. Social ownership can be public, collective or cooperative ownership, or citizen ownership of equity.
  • Social Gospel

    Social Gospel
    The Social Gospel was a movement in Protestantism that applied Christian ethics to social problems, especially issues of social justice such as economic inequality, poverty, alcoholism, crime, racial tensions, slums, unclean environment, child labor, lack of unionization, poor schools, and the dangers of war.
  • Automobile

    Automobile
    The automobile was first invented and perfected in Germany and France in the late 1800s, though Americans quickly came to dominate the automotive industry in the first half of the twentieth century.
  • Airplane

    Airplane
    The Wright brothers invented and flew the first airplane in 1903, recognized as "the first sustained and controlled heavier-than-air powered flight". Airplanes had a presence in all the major battles of World War II. The first jet aircraft was the German Heinkel He 178 in 1939.
  • Communism

    Communism
    Communism is a philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement that believes a centrally planned worker's state will eventually lead to a fully developed communist society.
  • Social Democracy

    Social Democracy
    Social democracy is a political, social and economic philosophy that supports economic and social interventions to promote social justice within the framework of a liberal democratic polity and a capitalist-oriented economy.