Imperial Russia

  • Schism

    Old Believers and Russian Orthodox Church. Protest against reforms by Nikon, who noticed the Orthodox divergance from Greek tradition. It weakened the church allowing for more cultural reform. Patriarch replaced by Synod of Bishops joined by Procurator (secular rep of tsar) who later becomes very powerful. Power diluted. Harder for young people to join churches and so numbers go down by 1/2. Land also taken away.
  • Fyodor III dies

    Peter's half brother dies leaving three contenders: Peter, Ivan, and Sophia
  • Sohpia leads elite guard uprising

    Boyar duma chose Peter. Ivan and Peter become joint tsars with Sophia as regent
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    Sophia's Regency

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    Peter the Great

    Peter wanted Western enlightened thinking that would end Russia's percieved barbarism. He aimed for change in many areas. The capital, beards had to be cut for nobles, noble women came out of seclusion into French based immodest dress, created balls and dances, more elite could speak French. Conservative Russians hate this. Merchants got more opportunities, education became part of advancement, promoted lower nobility with skill. Criticism largely from older generation. In 20 years good.
  • Sohpia forced into convent

    Peter's backers for her retirement but still joint reign.
  • Peter marries first wife

    Marries at age 17. Has wandering eye and sends her off to a monastery when she refuses divorce. She still has supporters as rightful empress though - mostly conservatives who do not like reforms. Became a symbol for traditionalists.
  • Aleksei born

    LIved with aunt after mom sent to nunnery and did not see father. Hope of traditionalists
  • Ivan V dies. Peter only tsar

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    Grand Embassy trip to Western Europe

    270 People go for 16 months which is unprecedented for a Muscovite ruler. Returen because of Stel'tsy uprising, which is excuse to purge them for their support of Sophia. Important because now can reform and create army on western model. Also sends back others to acquire new ideas and skills.
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    18th Century

    Population boom: 10-11 million to 40 million due to trritories gained, but mostly longer life expectancies. By 1800 still 90% peasant. Class and Estate systems not necessarily correlated. Serfdom becomes widespread. Labels are misleading because there are rich peasant traders better off than impoverished nobles. Major social divide is those who pay taxes and those who don't.
  • Builds fortress to protect St. Petersburg

    Kronshtadt - naval base secures capital in Northern war against Sweden, which ended up being way more demanding than originally anticipated.
  • Russia takes back Narva

    Formerly defeated there
  • Marries Catherine I

    Baltic illiterate peasant love match. Has son Aleksei from first marrige tortured and killed, ending hope of traditionalists. Reforms succesesion laws to choice of the monarch, which violates clan tradition and dynastic principles.
  • Poltava has huge victory for Russians

  • Aleksei forced to marry German princess

    eventually given choice by father - endorse reforms or renounce throne. Hides abroad. Accused of plot against tsar and court sentences him to death but dies in Peter and Paul prison.
  • Capital moved to St. Petersburg

    Thousands of serf lives given to cause - symbolizes turning of Muscovite state to Avante Guarde Empire. Hated Moscow with its state tradition. New capital had water connection to the Baltics (a window to Europe). Architecture was enlightened. Sea trade means idea exchange.
  • Peter I changes laws to single inheritance

    to avoid land being divided up and many poor nobles but only lasted to 1732. Helped Nicholas Sheremetev. Endless divison not economically viable but ended with paul who did not favour nobles.
  • Peter calls himself Emperor

    Signifies break from the past and identifies him to a Western audience. Can see desire to re-invent empire based on what he saw on his tour. The west thinks Russia is barbaric so changes to please western audiences
  • Peace of Nystadt

    Assures access to Baltic. Russia replaces Sweden as the greatest Northern power and bigger role on int. stage. Obtain cultural ties to Western Europe and Non-Slavic territories lead to "multi-ethnic" style empire (Latvia/Estonia/Lithuania). Army re-organized and navy crated. Army retains 73% of budget in peace time.
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    Catherine I

    Peter dies without nameing successor. Her or Aleksei's son. Catherine supported by men of new reforms Peter by old nobility.
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    Peter II

    Son of Aleksei, 12 years old, dies of smallpox
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    With Peter II male line of Romanovs ended. Anna is niece of Peter the Great. She appears easy to control and Supreme Privy Council puts restrictions on her - had to potential for an oligarchy but tensions among gentry. There was no precedent for Supreme Privy Council and other nobles feel like they are just acting for themselves so Anna uses a demonstration of the guards to tear up the restrictions. Abolishes SPC and has cabinet of 2 or 3 members
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    Ivan VI

    Great grandson of Ivan V. Is just infant. Coup led by guards and Peter the Great's daughter Elizabeth.
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    known to continue Peter's legacy. Rise in public discourse as well as European notions of enlightened authority. Seen as devoted to national good. Attraced to french culture - dies naturally
  • Law only gentry can own serfs

    Under Elizabeth
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    7 Years War

    Russia with France and Austria. Peter III joins Prussia instead. Divides Poland (goodbye Poland)
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    Peter III

    Son of Elizabeth's older sister Anne (granson of Peter the Great). Married to Catherine (German princess) didn't like Russia. Liked Prussian King Frederick II so withdrew from 7 years war. Disliked by everyone.
  • The Great Instruction

    Catherine tried to apply andn adapt the ideas of Montesqueiu in a Russia sort of enlightenment. Very influence b French philosophy but by the end of her rule there are less changes.
  • Emancipation of nobility from state service

    Not needed because of increased centralization and bureaucracy. wanted reanks to serve interests of state and bureaucracy by abolising obligation. allows bureaucracy to grow . Nobles not necessarily because service was opportunity for land grants. Clashed with social structure - was a trickle down effect of service. How could they justify serf labour?
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    Catherine The Great

    Leads revolution and bypasses her son for the throne. Rule of "enlightened absolutism" - reason and logic and absolute authority. Golden age for nobility. Expansion of control over sref labour. But truly rich still only 1% of hereditary nobility (land had to be split amond children, and cheap labour meant little innovation.) General territorial expansion
  • Sequestration of church lands

    Church takes hit in 18th century with secularism. Catherine takes lands and dependent on gratiuties and small parish plots. Only way to get better parishes is by marrige and competition creates cynicism
  • Legislative Commission

    Contained all classes except serfs and priests. 564 representatives, a few appointed but mostly elected. Shows how hard it was for philosophy and reality to link. Catherine realized the threat of open ideas and disbanded it at the outbreak of the Ottoman war in 1769
  • Russian Troops to Poland

    By 1770's Russia has internal problems. they do not want a strong Poland on their borders because the area is vital for defense and for launching invasions. Prussia and Austria also concernred that Russia will simply swallow Poland . In 1767 go and force diet to favour Orthodox religion and have 4 years of guerilla warfare. Poland supported by France and Austria and is merged with conflict with Ottomans so must move troops south.
  • No more hereditary nobles (Boyars)

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    Ottoman War

    Started by Ottomans who were banking on help from other powers and ends with Russian victory. Black Sea very important - outlet to international waters and Constantinople (center of Orthodox Church). Ends with Treaty of Kainarji wich cedes lands to Russia along Black sea and makes ottomans recognize independence of Crimea. Ottomans forced to give Russian merchant ships passage through Dardanell Straights with Black Sea Military Fleet (alarms UK). Ottomans promise to protect churches in C.
  • End of conflict in Poland

    Prussia alarmed by success of Russia against Ottomans and afraid they would get in war with Austria for Baltic spoils so offers Poland. Poland loses 1/3 of territory and 1/2 of its populaiton. For Russia, a distraction from greater interests (Ottoman war)
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    Pugachev's Rebellion

    Big scare. Pugachev pretends to be Peter III promising emancipation of serfs. Followers want to believe - saw service obligation end so believe their service obligation should as well. Call Catherine II illegitimate. Manifesto gave land to peasants. Close to taking Moscow. Build up of resentment to rule and serfdom. Made gov. aware of need for increased control so expanded provincial gov.
  • Edict of Toleration

    Religous freedom as long as it doesn't go against imerial order - cooperated with multi-ethnic nature of empire (islam). Gov. helps build mosques in Kazan and print Koran. Can be religious courts as long as not contrary to Russian law. All part of enlightenment and attempt to make muslims friendly to Russian rule.
  • Provincial Governmetn statute

    expanded provincial gov. from 8 to 35. Salaried civil staff, governor, commander in chief, courts, judges, boards of public welfare. All to create imperial presence on lower levels.
  • Provincial Police Created

    part of attempt to prevent local disturbances like pugachev's rebellion. wasn't followed very strictly and dependent on nobility..
  • Russia illegally annexes Crimea

    Violates treaty to get access to Black Sea. Was misunderstanding with treaty about the protection of the Orthodox Church - suddenly gave Russia an excuse to get involved in int. affairs
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    Second Russo Ottoman War

    1780 alliance Austria Russia. Dream for independent Greece with C. as center. Not supposed to be annexed - refuse to leave Crimea. GB gets Swedent to threaten from North. Austria quits alliance. Forced into Treaty of Crimea 1792. Greek dream kaput. Get territory but must back off.
  • French Revolution

    Cools down francophilia and puts shadow over Russia
  • Journey from St. Petersburg to Moscow written

  • Final partition of Poland

    Last of 3, progressively bigger - Austria/Prussia helping themselves. Brings Russia closer to other territories. Fuels nationalism in Poland
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    Paul I

    Catherine's son. Hated his mother. Created new law of succession to first male. Hated everything connected to his mother and made reversals of his mothers' decisions. Freed those banished by mom (Radischev) and did change some laws to limit abuse by nobility (hated nobles loved by his mother) curtailed noble rights and was asassinated for it.
  • Ban on serf sales

    Alexander talked a lot about reforms but didn't carry out many of them. Did do preliminary things - banned serf sales, and creaed law of free cultivators where landlords could free whole villages will tsars approval
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    Alexander I

    Raised by grandmother with enlightened education. Part of plot to depose father but regretted it. Keeps him fearful for his life. Vague promise to rule like grandmother. Nobles sick of Paul's tyranny. want protection of property adn possibly constitutional monarchy to limit power of tsar. 3 main groups: unoffical committee, old men of senate, and bureaucratic conservatives
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    Unofficial Reign of the Unofficial Committee

    Also known as "Young Friends." Didn't want restrictions on the monarch but wanted to use his authority to bring Russia closer to the West through economic development, advancement of the middle class, and something for the serfs. Known as Jacobins as conservatives. No respect for nobility but bureaucracy. Becomes disillusioned by them in 1805 at the beginning of the war. Other faction senate want constitution with limit on powers. Tired of being shafted by Paul
  • Treaty of Tilsit

    Btwn Napoleon and Russia. Reduced Russia bud didn't satisfy Russia or France. Created Polish state but Russia had to accept because defeated. Had to participate in embargo on British exports (didn't want to join)
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    Sperkanskii Reforms

    Alex sees need for more honest effective officals as a believer in bureaucracy. Was a poor seminary student who rose in teh ranks. Stood for strong monarchy based on law to free it from corruption. Like efficiency of monarchy but needed modifications to make it run smoothly ie. exams for promotions, legal/financial reforms, stabilize currency, temporary tax on noblility, separation of powers, Was very powerful from 1810-1811 but fell out of favour when Alex needed noble support for Napoleonic
  • Russia breaks blockade

    Was cutting into nobility's wealth. Seen as unloyal. France decides to invade
  • Beginning of Napoleonic invasion

    Initial success for France. Needed rapid success so have huge army (1/2 million). Didn't plan for long campaign. France = young conscripts because veterans in spain. Relied on austrians, swiss, Prussians, poles, spanish and portuguese. Russia has hardened troops. Russian plan to draw them in and starve/freeze them out.
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    Nicholas I

    brother of Alexander I with different childhood. Reactionary to brother's reign. Third boy, Constantine abdicates because of unsuitable marriage so wasn't expecting throne. Repressive reactionary vs. "enlightened older bro but Nicholas DID more than Alex.
  • Decembrist Revolt

    3,000 soldiers against Nicholas who argued Constantine should have throne. Harshly put down but continued to deeply influence Nicholas who always suspected rebellion. Even more troublesome was that rebellion cam from in army, which he loved.
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    Russo-Turkish war

    Ottomans reforming military. Concerns Russia. Nicholas puts more pressure and starts war. Sympathy for orthodox church but hate for muslims. Through treaty get mouth of Danube in Caucasus. Promise autonomy for provinces and get indemnity. Lesson of restraint. could collapse them but afraid of nationalism in balkans spreading.
  • Polish Revolt

    Russia gendarme of Europe. Poland officially independent but constitutional monarch is tsar. Polish nobility dissatisfied. Nicholas cracks down on army and radicalizes them. Plan full rebellion. Nov. uprising triggers populice (unlike decembrists). They are put down and constitution taken away replaced by organic statute which imposed Russian language, books, etc.
  • Ottoman Egyptian War

    Muhammad Ali, vassal of Ottoman empire want independence and revolts. Russia sides witth Ottomans because afraid of strong force in that territory.
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    Conservative resistance to Russian rule in the Caucasus - guerilla warfare through 1850's. Cholera epidemic creates hysteria. Rebellion in Poland 1830-1831 over constitution, put down and Nicholas replaces with organic statute - gives Russia more power, especially culturally. State ideology orthodoxy, autocracy, nationality.
  • Sergei Uvarov becomes Deputy Minister of Public Education

    Ideology of orthodoxy, autrocracy, nationality. Orthodoxy = rejection of skepticism of 18th century and Orthodox docrtine. Autocracy = personal rule by divine right. Nationality = intro of nationalism, emphasizing unique nature of Russian. Order of God --> Ruler --> People. Replace enlightenment with Russianism - Russia is policeman of old school Europe. An alternative to Western modernity is Russian nationalism
  • Treaty Unkiar Skelessi

    Cooperation between Ottomans and Russians against Muhammad Ali. Close straights to protect Russia from UK. Treaty worries other powers because worried Russia can send war ships through straights.
  • Digesetive Laws Compiled

    First code since 1649. Speranskii's project. Compile all laws in 15 volume set. Law school also opened, the graduates of which are the reformers of 1860's. .
  • Herzen meets Bakunin

    Herzen (father of Russian socialism) writes foundation of populism. Likes mirs. R. socialism with nationalist tinge. Attacks bourgoisie (or anyone better off) for their low values. Bakunin (social anarchism). Basic idea to free humans and get rid of state. Pure anarchy = fair distributionof resources. Must marry ideal of commune with equality of the west. Avoid industrialization. Populism attractive because don't have painful industrializtion and capitalism.
  • Extreme Censorship

    Evven supporters are disscouraged. Enrollment in Universities goes dowon because so much suspicion. No studying abroad. Although general education was going up and literacy increasing on lower levels. Conservative Pogoden said gov. imposing "quieet of a graveyard."
  • Manifesto against revolution

  • Rebellions across Europe

    Nicholas' regime was always conservative but now becomes even more repressive in wake of revolutions across Europe. Fears of sedition high. Sentenced for reading socialist writings. Petrashevskii Circle who read things targeted. Letter talking about problems in empire. Dostoevsky sentenced to death. At last moment pardoned. Dissidents were minority, most proud of Russia's power. Generally secure from outside threats.
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    Crimean War

    ottomans and everyone else vs. Russia . France/Russia doing pretty good. Nich wants to avoid war. Dispute over holy lands (catholic vs. orthodox). - both want control of area. Russia protectorate of Christianity in Ottoman empire since 1774. Russia counts on support from Austria but austria threatens to join ottomans if R. goes thru balkans so forced to fight in crimea. GB offers support to ottomans in war (scared of Russia). Turks resist with armed conflict supported by GB/France. Lose.
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    Alexander II

    Came to power when need for reform evidence from Crimean War. Clearly autocracy was fallible. Believed Father of the People and gathered libeal bureaucrats who strove for efficiency. Policy of Glasnost: new openess. New freedoms of speech, sbolition of restrictions on travel, more universities, Supported by "enlightened bureaucrats" (Gosudarstvenniki) who believed educated people would agree with them. Relate to stat and not their estate.
  • Treaty of Paris

    Humiliation. Were no match for allies. Bad transportation, bad weapons, bad sanitary conditions, Nicholas dies of pneumonia. Treaty cedes mouth of danube, accept nuetralization of black sea, give up protectorate of Christians in Ottoman empire. Profoud impact in Russia. Defeat showed conservatives the need for change, especially in the army. Technology and science had been repressed. No more excuses.
  • Treaty of Peking

    Gets outer Manchuria taking advantage of Chinese weakness and to compensate for losses in Crimean war. Russia getting mnay more non-Russian non-Orthodox people in empire. In Central Asia close to Afghanistan and British India competition for central asian population.
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    The Great Reforms

    Effects of reforms become evident. Agricultural production goes up because land being sold to merchants and business people. Industry goes up, and between 1860 and 1900 the population doubles. Dichotomy between Fathers and Sons. Sons are 1860's hippies calling for rejection of the past. Fathers are from 1840's influenced by romanticism. Creates generational tension.
  • Emancipation of the Serfs

    Unbalanced serf ownership. 1/5 of nobility own 80% of serfs. 1 in 5 could live off serfs. B1 in 25 could live absentee. But as a group supported serfdom. Arguemtn for abolition moral (hard to defend), economic (not part of modern state), geopolitial (need to modernize, armed forces should be small and qualified), security (do it before an uprising), and logistical (how to do it? compensation?) Crimea tipped the scale. Alex pushes, conservatives water down. 22.5 mill males freed.
  • Rise of Populism

    Began after emancipation of serfs as more constructive realism. Not Marxist. Critical realists get a program - change society by going to masses and paying debt to society. Mostly children of upper classes (university students). Just as reforms are happening, birth of revolutionary spirit (Alexander II opened the box). broad cluster of ideas. don't let peasts be exploited by capitalism. inherited by SR's
  • Chernyshevskii writes What is to be Done?

    Literature professor, also atheist. Wrote best seller of his time whil in Peter and Paul prison Inspiraton of later revolutionaries. Populist who idealized peasant commune. Shows deep feelings of guilt among the young who finally allowed to think critically due to reforms want action. See "sacred debt." Agency being taken and dissilussioned by society and parents' values.
  • Beginning of Nihilist Movement

    Belief in nothing. Rejected all authority. Things suck so we should do something but have no idea what. General rebellion against accepted values and standards but no direction for social change. After asassination of Alexander II call for violence to create political change. Contrasted realists who wanted pure science to solve societal problems - rationality.
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    Polish Rebellion

    Part of empire. After last rebellion part of centralization, police control and russification. On western borderlands especially intense russification.
  • First Zemstvo

    Part of Great Reforms. More accountability on lower levels. Elected provincial zemstvo, which was a club for loal gentry set budgets, kept communities in good shape. Dealt with local education, insruance, roads, famine relief. Only local and provincial - not national. The idea conflicts with autocracy and is initiated from below.
  • Legal Reforms

    Trial by jury, equality before law. They could do this because of law schools funded by Nicholas. Study European law.
  • Sale of Alaska

    Get port in Vladivostok. Alaska was Russian colony since 1741 with Russian American company like HBC contracting for imperial rule. Sell to USbecause Great Britain on teh side of South in the civil war and the two are enemies. Manifest Destiny would lead US to try and take British territory (BC). Couldn't defend Alaska (only 500 people there) and didn't want to populate it.
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    Height of Go to the People Movement

    Thousands of youth dress as peasants adn preach revolution in villages but were clearly recognized by real peasants. Cause suspicion in populave who ssee them as agents of the state. Love commune and the peasants - see peasants revolution without the industrialism.
  • Military Reforms

    Obligation to serve from all classes. Service term from 25 to 5 years (meant you could actually survive). Reserves organized, recruits chosen by lot (gets rid of blackmail), no corporal punishment, technological re-organization, universal military training act (more education = less service) means that education in peasantry went way up.
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    Russian Ottoman War in the Balkans

    Re-sets world of Europe, and begins leadup to 1914. From 1856-77 limpingn from war. Students from Balkans going to Russia (to become russified) but actually getting populist education. Alex II and Britain have sacred pact that R. does not want Istanbul. Go in instead with pretext of Bulgarian attrocities, where Bulgarian uprising put down by muslims Bulgaria asks for R. help. Agree no Austria/Hungary help. If R. takes territory, Austria gets Bosnia. 1877 declarationof war. Costly victory
  • Congress of Berlin

    Overseen by Bismark. Re-draws map because terms of San Stefano did not stand. Serbia/Montenegro lose acquisitions, Bulgaria split into 3 - Bulgaria, E. Romelia, Macedonia. AH occupies Bosnia. GB gets Cypress. Was this a failure for Russia? used as tool, ask for a lot and give up much but still get much.
  • San Stefano Treaty

    Gorchakov, foreign minister originally only thinks they will get Northern Bulgaria, but is emboldened to ask for more in face of great losses. Demands complete independence of all bulgaria. In treaty get territory in Caucasus, many states = independence (Bosni/Herzegovina/Bulgari) and get indemnity. Treaty violates Austrian agreement which called for no large slavic state in the balkans (afraid of nationalism). Now puppet state dominates balkans. Bulgarians hated by everybody
  • Land and Freedom

    Extreme wing of populism. In 1879 there was a divide between advocates of gradualism and the people's will, which watned to overthrow the gov. Saw the centrality of the tsar as crippling the regime.
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    Alexander III

    Son of Alexander II. After father asassinated, begins counter-reforms. See asassination as consequences of liberalism. Influenced by tutor and advisor Konstantin Pobedonostsev who was main theoretician of age. Justified autocracy against constitutional monarchy. emphasized weakness/viciousness of men so need strong gov. hates industrial revolution and cities (money not going to nobles). Tsar = father and people are infants. (intellectuals don't like this)
  • Alexander II asassinated

    Land and freedom gropu kill him on his way to sign stepts to consitutional rule, which is ironic. Count Mikhail Lons-Melnikov was elected member of public and wanted financial and administrative reforms.
  • Emergency Measures

    Puts in temporary regulations for 3 year period but keeps them indefinitely. Emergency powers and marshall law, summary arrest, no gatherings outside university, trial by marshalls etc. Puts in press regulations, zemstvo nobles gain even more voice.
  • End of University Autonomy

    Universities too dangerous. So takes away their autonomy and put under stronger control of government.
  • Alliance of 3 Emperors collapses

    Was Germany Austria Russia (Eastern bloc). Too much conflict in Balkans for AH and Russia. Re-orientation - Bismark always kept Russia close to prevet 2 front war, but after leaves policy abandoned.
  • Census

    14 million Muslims. Until 20th century more Muslims in Russia than Ottoman empire. Russia expanding to former persia and ottoman territory. Generally enmeshed in Russian culture but Chechen cas different.
  • SR's form

    Social Revolutionaries: Populists. Look to larger people. Want immediate socialistm - but not exclusively from workers, but from people as a whole. Leader was in exile in London and saw firsthand the dangers of industrialization so focus on avoiding industrialization. Up to 1917 more popular then marxists.
  • Franco-Russian Alliance

    Lasts to 1894. Econoic and military. Lots of state loans to Russia to build up industrializaton to compete against Germany. (France doesn't like - Franco-Prussian Wars)
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    Trans-Siberian Railway

    Samara --> Manchuria. Signature of age. Power + cost of industrialization.
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    Large scale deaths. Resentment over export of grain while own peasants starving. Revitilizaitonof zemstvos as a result.
  • Electoral reforms

    Have to have more property to vote. Infuriates a lot of people.
  • Sergei Witte appointed Minister of Finance

    Father of industrial development of Russia. Put Russia in world economic system. Liked autocracy but thinks needs industry to strengthen it. Embraced because little alternative. Germany threat because consolidated and Russia afraid of foreign domination. Russia begins exporting grain and puts in protective tariffs - use money to buy machinery. Alienated both peasants and gentry. Stabilization of gold standard. Before him Bunge made peasant bank to help make peasants rich - called sociali
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    1890's industrial growth - Witte Reforms

    Got more investment creating political alliainces (with France), but squeezed peasants for all their money and had heavy indirect taxation. Believe if they don't build up will become colony exporting raw materials and getting back goods. Large scale gov. enterprise. Exports going E. Grain to W. But ends with depression in 1900 and then upsurge in 1905. Circles forming for political actions some just of workers, peasants, open door to marxist left.
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    Nicholas II

  • Zemstvo Appeal

    Revitilized over famine, ask to be included in policy deliberation to some extent. Nicholas IIi rsponds by calling them senseless dreams. Reaffirms autocracy and first of several movements that disrupted the relationship between the state and the people. Creates movement for maxist who show state's incompetence to deal with famines.
  • Lease Port Arthur

    Russia dmands 25 year lease of Port although violation of treaty with China. Take advantage of Boxer rebellion. Supress rebellionand then stay there under pretense of protecting railroad. Japan offers to divide Manchuria but Russia rejects that.
  • SD's form

    Social Democrats: Russian Social Democratic Worker's Party founded. Marxists.
  • Economic depression

    Opened door to Marxist left who emerging through illegal organizations like soviets. Depression discredited Witte to peasants but also made journey to capitalism irreversible. Clearly was possible for Russia.
  • SD's split

    Split into Mensheviks and Bolsheviks. Marxist Mensheviks - hope in capitalism as necessary evil. Russia not yet ready for proletariat revolution. Goal = bougeois revolution. Bolsheviks - rejected populism and Menshevik toleration of liberals. Impatient for quick socialism. Marxism attractive why? Not exactly made for Russia. History seemed on their side - future in capitalism. Working class becoming more important. Linked Russia with rest of the world. Students, intelligensia, wrkers.
  • Seige of Port Arthur

    After Russia rejects proposal to divide Manchuria with Japan. J. launches surprise attack on Port Arthur. Russia severely underestimates Japan and in may 1905 Russian fleet is destroyed. Russia was extremely arrogant going in, so defeat is intense humiliation.
  • Bloody Sunday

    George Gapon (orthodox priest and working class leader) leads city wide general strike. Decision to mass march to winter palace (peaceful but breaks social rules). Present petition to "Our Father:" Higher wages, lower hours, constitution, universal suffrage. Nicholas II does not appear at palace and orders shooting of crowd. Crowd sings patriotic songs, 100 dead. People beocme radicalized.
  • Portsmouth Treaty

    Ends Russo-Japanese War. Symbolizes US as a world power because they moderate peace settlement. Witte is R. rep. Port Arthur peninsula to Japan. 1/2 of Sakhalin Island to Japan, part of railway, Manchuria to China but no indemnity. National humiliation and direction goes left.
  • Soviet elected

    St. Petersburg Soviet elected of workers and intellectuals. Become shadow government. The state loses control of Petersburg and Moscow. At the end of the harvest there is looting and unrest in the countryside.
  • Kadet Party created

    Constitutional Democratic Party. Liberals who want constutition. Finally get courage to defy government and unite liberals with radicals.
  • October Manifesto

    Nicholas II forced to make concessions in October Manifesto under influence of Witte. Vague legislative body called Duman. Near universal male suffrage, Civil and religious liberties., right to create unions and political parties. Had enough substance to divide the opposition - not radical enought for far leftists, but good for moderates. Allows enough peace to arrest Petersburg Soviet.
  • Octobrist Party founded

    Union of 17 October Party - organized in wake of October Manifesto. Worked with imperial gov. as long as it honoured Manifesto's promises. Shows division of opposition. Unrest continues but back of opposition broken. Army begins to obey orders again.
  • Russian Constitution enacted

    Note article 87 which states Tsar can dissolve Duman whenever he wants and make new laws in interim. Tsar has full military power but budget in hands of duma.
  • Duma elected

    First Duma elected. gov. assumed the peasants would back the government but left wing parties get more voice than expected.. is dissolved. 2nd duma still too radical to revise law to ensure more conservatives -weight towards gentry.
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    Stolypin Reforms

    Agricultural reforms. Take communal lands and turn into private property. Nov. 1906 approved by 3rd duma. Wager on strong who would prosper and weak would sell land to strong and become employees etc. Populists hate it - dissolving their dreams. Conservatives hate it - peasants could outstrip nobles in wealth. But very smart because the richer th peasants, the more conservative they are. Last ditch to change Russia. Some peasant dissatisfaction but sporadically enforced. 2 little 2 late
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    3rd Duma - only surviving

    Only Duma to serve whole term. Octobrists represented. Choice to go right to nationalists or left to kadets. The most extremes are mostly on the streets. All laws have to be approved by both houses. Meanwhile unrest stirring again labour movements nd Lena goldfield massacres. lead to 1914.