1810• Mexico wins independence from Spain.
• Mexico permits Stephen F. Austin to colonize Texas
1824• Mexico becomes a republic
1835• Mexico passes a new constitution, centralizes power,
Mexican states protest
1836• Texas declares independence from Mexico on March 2.
• Texas loses battles at the Alamo and Goliad.
• Santa Anna is captured by Sam Houston at the Battle of San Jacinto.
1838• Civil war in Mexico prevents invasion of Texas
1845• In February, U.S. Congress votes to annex Texas.
1846• First shots of the war are fired on April 23.
• War declaration from the U.S., “American blood has been
shed on American soil,” on May 9.
• Declaration of the Bear Flag Republic in California on June 14.
• December 8: Battle of San Pascual
• On December 6, with reinforcement, Kearny recaptures
Los Angeles, war ends in California.
1847• In February, Battle of Buena Vista. Taylor defeats Santa Anna
despite being outnumbered.
• Scott arrives in Veracruz with 12,000 troops in March.
• U.S. artillery bombards Mexican Troops outside Mexico City
on September 12.
• U.S. attacks on Chapultepec, last Mexican defensive position.
• Six youths — to be known as the “Niños heroes”— die
defending Chapultepec, on September 12.
• On September 14, Scott enters Mexico City, victorious, raises
American flag at the national palace.
1848• Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo signed on February 2, 1848,
officially ending the war.