TEKS 4.20A The student understand the impact of science and technology on life in Texas. Identify famous inventors and scientists such as Gail Borden, Joseph Glidden, Michael DeBakey, and Millie Hughes-Fulford and their contributions.


    Born: November 9, 1801 in Norwich, Chenango County, New York, US Died: January 11, 1874

    Born: January 18, 1813 in Charlestown, New Hampshire
    Died: October 9, 1906
  • 1st issue of Telegraph and Texas Register

    1st issue of Telegraph and Texas Register
    Gail and his brother John Borden entered into partnership with Joseph Baker to publish the first newspaper in Texas. The first issue of the Telegraph and Texas Register appeared on October 10, 1835, days after the Texas Revolution began. It contained the first list of names of Texans who died at the Battle of the Alamo. Later that year, he joined the Texian Army (1835-1836).
  • Co-plotted the cities of Houston and Galveston

    Co-plotted the cities of Houston and Galveston
    During the war, Gail Borden Jr. helped to design the Baker's San Felipe flag which was flown in the Battle of San Jacintoon April 21, 1836.
  • Republic of Texas Collector of Customs

    President Sam Houston appointed Borden as the Republic of Texas Collector of Customs at Galveston in June 1837
  • "Meat Biscuit"

    Borden perfected a meat biscuit, made of dehydrated meat compounded with flour. He developed this transportable food for Pioneers seeking gold in California and the United States Army.
  • Invented sweetened condensed milk

    Borden developed a process for concentrating milk, receiving U.S. and British patents.
  • New York Condensed Milk Company

    New York Condensed Milk Company
    Gail Borden founded the New York Condensed Milk Company with Jeremiah Millbank. Built new factory in Connecticut to produce condensed milk for soldiers…expanded process for condensing fruit juices and for making extracts from beef and coffee.
  • Westward expansion halted...

    Westward expansion of the agricultural frontier across the Great Plains had been halted by the lack of adequate fencing material to protect crops from cattle.
  • Built schools and started churches...

    Borden built a freedmen's school and a white children's school, organized a day school and a Sunday school for black children, aided in constructing five churches, maintained two missionaries, and partially supported numerous poorly paid teachers, ministers, and students.
  • barbed wire patent

    barbed wire patent
    Glidden was granted a patent for fencing material consisting of barbs wrapped around a single strand of wire and held in place by twisting that strand around another. Glidden designed commercially successful barbed wire to protect crops water supplies and livestock from uncontrollable movement of cattle.
  • Barb Fence Co

    Glidden developed a machine for producing barbed wire in large quantities. He partnered with Isaac Leonard Elwood to form the Barb Fence Company. This mass production led to widespread use of barbed wire and had a major impact on the development of farming and ranching methods on the American Great Plains.
  • Transformed the Great Plains of North America

    Glidden partnered with H. B. Sanborn to provide Texas cattlemen with a large-scale demonstration of ranch fencing, headed the project. They developed the "Frying Pan Ranch" in Bushland, Potter County, Texas, in 1881. Initially, cattlemen strongly opposed barbed wire because they sometimes allowed their herds to roam free and graze at no expense. The ranch proved the successful; the ranch's eastern border became Amarillo's Western Street. By 1890, nearly the entire western US range was fenced.
  • Philanthropy

    Glidden, a former teacher, donated a 64-acre tract of land for the construction of a public school called the Normal School at DeKalb.
    The school's name was changed to Northern Illinois University in 1957. The town of Glidden, Iowa, is named in his honour.
  • Wealthiest man in America

    By the time of Glidden's death in 1906, he was one of the richest men in America. He had been collecting royalties for this invention since 1880.

    Born: September 7, 1908 Lake Charles, Louisiana
    Died: July 11, 2008
  • "roller-pump"

    DeBakey devised the “roller pump,” an essential component of the heart-lung machine that permitted open-heart surgery.

    Born: December 21, 1945 Mineral Wells, Texas, U.S
  • Baylor University College of Medicine

    DeBakey became professor of surgery and chairman of the department of surgery at Baylor College of Medicine in Houston, where he later served as president (1969–79) and then as chancellor (1979–96).
  • 1st carotid endarterectomy for stroke

    DeBakey performed the first successful carotid endarterectomy for stroke.
  • American Medical Association Distinguished Service Award

  • 1st Coronary artery bypass

    DeBakey and his team performed the first successful coronary artery bypass graft procedure on November 23, 1964.
  • 1st ventricular assist device

    1st ventricular assist device
    DeBakey invented first successful implantation of a ventricular assist device.
  • Texas Woman's University

    Hughes-Fuller received her Ph.D. from Texas Woman's University.
  • University of Texas at Dallas

    Dr. Hughes-Fulford joined the faculty of Southwestern Medical School, University of Texas at Dallas as a postdoctoral fellow where her research focused on regulation of cholesterol metabolism.
  • 1st woman to travel to space as working scientist

    1st woman to travel to space as working scientist
    Dr. Hughes-Fulford was selected as a payload specialist by NASA in January.
  • Researched Osteoporosis in astronauts

    Hughes-Fuller flew in June 1991 aboard STS-40 Spacelab Life Sciences (SLS 1), the first Spacelab mission dedicated to biomedical studies. These studies examined the root causes of osteoporosis that occurs in astronauts during spaceflight and also how this information explains aging on earth.
  • More than 50 honorary degrees...

    DeBakey received more than 50 honorary degrees from universities throughout the world. In 1992 he was introduced into the Academy of Athens, a society of scholars generally restricted to Greeks who have made significant contributions to the arts, sciences, or literature.
  • T-cell gene

    T-cell gene
    In collaboration with Dr. Augusto Cogoli of Zurich, Switzerland, Hughes-Fuller examined changes in T-cell gene induction in spaceflight in a joint NASA/ESA International Space Station experiment that went up on the Soyuz in September 2006. In July 2013, NASA awarded her work as a top discovery on ISS.
  • Congressional Gold Medal of Honor

    Congressional Gold Medal of Honor
    DeBakey was bestowed with the highest and most distinguished civilian award given by the U.S. Congress, the Congressional Gold Medal of Honor.