European History from 1450 to 1800.

Timeline created by Jose2792
In History
  • 1347

    The Black Plague

    The Black Plague
    Killed 1/3 of Europe in 3 years! Known as the Bubonic Plague. It Completely changed European societies. It was the bridge between the Dark Ages and the Renaissance.
  • 1400

    The Renaissance

    The Renaissance
    A time of the revival of old Greek ideas.
    Lasted from the 14th-17th century.
    New ideas mixed with old and new inventions came about
  • Jan 1, 1413


    He created Linear Perspective. That influenced many other upcoming art forms and allowed paintings to have depth and realism.
  • 1440

    Printing Press

    Invented in 1440 by goldsmith Johannes Gutenberg in Germany.
  • 1450


    Revolutionized the art in Florence during the early Renaissance.
  • 1450

    The Rise of the Medici Family

    The Medici Family was a powerful family in Italy. They sponsored many Renaissance painters such as Leonardo Da Vinci.
  • 1454

    The Gutenberg Bible is Published

    considered the first book ever printed
  • 1464

    Cosimo de Medici'd Death.

    He was considered the father of the nations by many because he sponsored a lot of projects and kept the Renaissance moving.
  • 1476

    The Age of Exploration

    The Age of Exploration
    The age of exploration began. It was a time of trying to find new trade partners and exploring.
  • 1484

    Leonardo Da Vinci

    Leonardo Da Vinci painted the Mona Lisa. An artwork so important it is still on display in the Louvre Museum. It represented the artwork of Humanism
  • 1492

    The Americas Discovered.

    The Americas were "discovered" by Christopher Columbus.
  • 1500


    Was considered a genius architecture and painter during the high renaissance.
  • 1504

    Michelangelo finishes "David"

    The life-size realistic human sculpture paved and showed how Humanism was taken form in art. Also, how precise art was.
  • 1510

    Raphael Paints the School of Athens

    Was Raphael's masterpiece. It had amazing detail, depth, and color. It portraited humanism and detail like no other. It is a collage of many famous philosophers and painters.
  • 1512


    Painted the Sistine Chapel during the High Renaissance.
  • 1513


    Wrote the Prince which was a political treatise.
  • 1514


    The idea that the sun was at the center of the universe. Was Nicolaus Copernicus' idea. The Chruch did not like this because they believed that Earth was the center.
  • 1517

    The Protestant Reformation

    The Protestant Reformation
    People began to question the Chruch and riot.
  • 1517


    Made by Martin Luther. Its belief was that faith alone could bring salvation from all sin.
  • 1517

    The Catholic Reformation

    Known as the Counter-Reformation.
    Was the response to the Protestant Reformation.
  • Oct 31, 1517

    Martin Luther

    Posted the 95 theses to the Wittenberg Castle Church doors.

    Gave his ideas on indulgences and other problems the Catholic Church had.

    Sparked many other small religious groups.
  • 1519


    Originated from John Calvin. Its belief was that one is predetermined to either go to heaven or to hell.
  • 1523


    Made up by Felix Mantz. Its belief was that a person shall not be baptized until they are ready for it. So, no baby babtization.
  • 1531


    Originated from Zwingli. Its belief was that the church is under the sovereignty power of God.
  • 1533

    Ivan the Terrible

    Became the first Tzar of Russia.
    Conquered huge amounts of territory.
    Turned Russia into a multiethnic country.
  • 1543

    The Scientific Revolution Start

    The Scientific Revolution Start
    This era marked the start of modern science, philosophy, and mathematics. It included many famous names and events like the discovery of gravity and Issac Newton.
  • 1543

    Nicolas Copernicus

    Published the book "De Revolutionibis Orbium Coelestium" which described the heliocentric theory. That was the movement of the earth.
  • 1545

    The Council of Trent

    Described as the embodiment of the Catholic reformation. Enforced religious laws and solved previous problems.
  • 1550

    The Age of Absolutism

    The Age of Absolutism
    A period of time when Europe was ruled by very powerful monarchs.
  • 1555

    The Peace of Augsburg

    Ended the conflict between Roman Catholics and Lutherans in Germany. It established the right of each Prince to decide on the nature of religious practice in his lands.
  • 1556

    Philip the 2nd

    King of the Spanish Empire.
    Was an absolute monarch.
    Launched an Armada against England but was defeated.
  • 1559

    Elizabeth the 1st.

    Established an English Protestant Church.
    Supported her people and her time on the throne was the best time England had ever gotten.
    Was a good absolute monarch.
    Was a virgin.
  • 1561


    proved that unexplainable things can be explained with science and math. Those ideas are still surprising and used today.
    Called "The Father of Empiricism"
  • 1570

    First Modern Atlas is Published.

    Helped for better navigation.
  • 1580

    The Dutch Golden Age

    It ended in 1670. A lot of the money came from the slave trade. They weren't absolutists. Had a stable and thriving economy. Had the highest salaries in Europe. Had nice housing
  • Henry the 8th

    Was originally a Huguenot but switched to Catholicism to gain authority over his people.
    Passed the Edict of Nantes to protect the Huguenots.

    Laid the foundation of Royal Absolutism.
  • Galileo Galilei

    Demonstrates the properties of gravity. Believed that if a one-pound object and an 100-pound object were dropped from the same height, they would touch the ground at the same time.
  • The end of the Renaissance

    The end of the era of rebirth and the Age of Exploration
  • Hobbes

    Was an English philosopher.
    Wrote Leviathon in 1651.
    Considered one of the founders of modern political philosophy. His ideas influenced Federalists
  • James the 1st

    Scottish King of England who had power struggles with Parliament.
    Led to the modern translation of the bible. AKA The king James version.
  • The Thirty Years War

    The Thirty Years War
    A series of wars that started off with a religious purpose but ended with political tendencies.
    Had four phases known as the Bohemian, Danish, Swedish and French phases.
    Known as a "mini" world war.
  • Bohemian Phase.

    Began when two royal officers were thrown out a window by Protestants. Was a religious conflict
  • Danish Phase

    It started after Bohemia was defeated. Was a local religious conflict.
  • Charles the 1st

    An Absolutist ruler.
    Was a heavy spender and so made their taxes heavier.
    Parliament forced him to sign the petition of right.

    he ignored the document
  • William Harvey

    Discovered the full Circulatory System for the blood as well as the origin for the pumping of blood and capillaries. He laid the foundation for modern physiology. He made a lot of helpful contributions to science and medicine. He dissected live animals.
  • Swedish Phase

    Was a major turning point for the protestant side.
    Had a strong well-trained army.
    Started turning into more of a power and political war.
  • John Locke

    Was an English philosopher
    One of the most influential enlightenment thinkers
    Known as the "Father of Liberalism"
    Believed people are selfish but for a reason.
  • French Phase

    France declared war on Spain.
    France allied with Sweden.
    It was more of a political war.
  • Rene Descartes

    Describes geometry. Explained how motions can be shown on a curve graph. Connected geometry and algebra. Known as the first modern philosopher.
  • English Civil War

    English Civil War
    Known as the 7 years war.
    Ended with the execution of Charles the 1st.
    People didn't like the way Charles ruled and so Oliver Cromwell and the Roundheads overthrew him.
  • Louis the 14th

    Was an Absolute Monarch.
    Began the Age of Absolutism
    Was known as the Sun King
    Had complete control of the throne.
    Basically empowered the absolutist idea
  • The Protestant Reformation End.

    The Protestant Reformation and the 30 years' war ended with The Treaty of Westphalia.
  • Oliver Cromwell

    Took control of the new England commonwealth once Charles the 1st was executed.
    Turned country into a Puritan state.
    Didn't like Catholics. No religious toleration
    Outlawed Taverns theatres and gambling.
  • Charles the 2nd

    Returned after a kingless decade. He restored the Angelican Chruch.
    Was very popular. Had religious toleration. Upheld the Petition of Right. (The one that Charles the 1st ignored).
    Beleived in absolute monarchy but was careful to avoid the fate of his father
  • Edict of Fontainebleau

    Issued by Louis the 14th. Was meant to remove the Huguenots from France in order to make it into a single religious-based monarchy. Louis the 14th was an absolutist.
  • Issac Newton

    Applied the theory of gravity to all objects. Developed the three fundamental laws of motion. Discovered calculus.
  • The Glorious Revolution

    The Glorious Revolution
    Replaced King James the 2nd with his Protestant daughter Mary.
    It was both a political and religious war.
  • Peter the Great

    Tried to westernize Russian culture.
    Gained control of the Russian Orthodox Church.
    He Spread Serfdom
    Was a really harsh leader.
    Could not break through the Ottoman Turkeys.
  • William and Mary

    Made a lot of limiting changes that transformed England's Absolute Power rulers' into a limited monarchy. That monarchy was controlled by legislative power.
  • Voltaire

    Was one of the leading writers of the enlightenment. Came up with the quote "Common sense is not common".
    Was an advocate for freedom of speech.
  • Montesquieu

    Was a French judge and political philosopher.
    Came up with three branches for the government and believed there were 3 different types of governments. The three branches were the legislative, the judicial, and the executive. The three governments were the Monarchy, the Republican, and the Despotism.

    Inspired the government for the US.
  • War of Spanish Succession.

    A war fought to prevent a ruler from possessing the crowns of both France and Spain. Afterward, King Philip the 5th remained king of Spain but not France. The war ended in 1714.
  • Rousseau

    Was a writer composer and Philosopher.
    His writings strongly influenced the French revolution.
    Influenced the development of the Socialist theory.
  • Frederick William the 1st

    Leader of the strong nation of Prussia. Used his army to keep control over his nobles that he called Junkers. Invaded the Holy Roman Empire
  • Maria Theresa

    Improved Hapsburg power in the empire by forming bureaucracies and centralizing tax collection. Was one of the few great female leaders during the Age of Absolutism
  • St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre

    St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
    In France, a lot of Protestants were killed by French Catholics. 5000-30000 Huguenots were killed.
  • Wollstonecraft

    Was an advocator for women. She stated that women are inferior to men because of the lack of education.
  • Catherine the Great

    Was the longest-reigning female leader of the Russian Empire.
    Successfully led Russia against the Ottoman Empire.
    Rapidly extended the Russian Empire. through conquest and diplomacy.
    She made Russia a dominant power source.
  • Adam Smith

    Was Scottish. Was a philosopher and economist.
    Known as "The father of Economics" or "the Father of Capitalism".
    Wrote a book called "An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations." in 1776. believed that the common fold should have more money.
  • The Age of Absolutism End

    Ended with the French Revolution.