Custom Union. also known as simply Benelux, is a politico-economic union and formal international intergovernmental cooperation of three neighboring states in western Europe: Belgium, Netherlands, and Luxembourg.
Organisation for European Economic Cooperation OEEC
PREDECCESSOR OF ECSC I
The organisation was created to allocate and distribute Marshall Plan
Council of Europe. Beginning of EU III
International organisation whose stated aim is to uphold human rights, democracy and the rule of law in Europe
NATO. Beginning of EU IV
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization
50s Beginning of the European Integration Process
PREDECCESSOR OF ECSC II
-It is the statement made by the French foreign minister Robert Schuman and JEAN MONNET on 9 May 1950. It proposed to place French and German production of coal and steel under one common High Authority. This organization would be open to participation of Western European countries.
-Creation of the concep of common market.
Stop the influence of Soviet Union and increases the potencial of the w european contries.
-CORNER STONE FOR THE CREATION OF ECSC
Treaty of Paris. Coal and steel C. Beginning of EU V
6 countries Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, and West Germany.
Expired in 2002
came in force for 50 years
High authority (Commission)
The Council of ministers.
Court of justice.
Currently EU structure came from this model.
Increase in production of iron and coal.
Influence on political situation
Court of Justice.- An independent judicial authorithy
European Defense Community (REJECTION)
FIRST CRISIS OF EUROPEAN INTEGRATION.
also known as the Treaty of Paris.
Not limited to military integration.
Sing in by 6 countries, but rejected by France
2 Possibles alternatives of Integration
The approach will depend by the particular interest of the countries.
(Agriculture, transport services, energetic...)
Charles de Gaulle proposed, instead of a community, to create just an union of countries to avoid the loss of influence of France
EUROPEAN STATES WANTED TO PROTECT THE NATIONAL MARKETS
Conference of Messina.
Preparation for the Treaty of Rome.
selection of another sectors suitables for integration.
Both ideas will be accepted:
Sectoral approach for ATOMIC RESEARCH
Integration approach for FORMATION OF INTEGRATED ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT (Spaak Report)
Treaty of Rome
creation of the European Economic Community.
Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and West Germany.
EUROATOM. Common market for nuclear material, reaserch and health protection
PRINCIPE OF SOLIDARITY
BASIC LAW HARMONIZATION BETWEEN THE MEMBERS
60's Community Crises Period
Charles de Gaulle proposed the "Fourchet plan" The idea was to form a new 'Union of States', an intergovernmental alternative to the European Communities.
This Union should have the veto right to any community initiatives.
France used the veto to prohibit the entrance as membership of Ireland, Denmark and Norway (Fear of decreasing influence of France)
First partnership agreement in the history between the European Economic Community (EEC) and the AASM (Associated African States and Madagascar) in 1963 (ASMM (African States, Madagascar and Mauritius) in 1969 respectively).
Empty Chair Crisis
-The position of commission was very weak.
- De Gaulle defended the idea of community more than a supranationalism system, but he agreed with the creation of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), he disagreed with the new rol of the commission (hierarchy)
- The proposal to change from the unanimity to qualified majority voting to increase the supranationalism of the commission.
-France left for almost one year the Council of Ministers, as a signal of boicot and disapprovement
Simplification in one single structure, instead of three.
Only one commission and council of ministers. Sing in in Brussels
Solution for the empty chair crisis. All the members will try to help in all the ways possible a determinated country when it had an importat interess to solve, even with a further regulation in theirs economic systems.
-Cancel duties between EEC members
- The common trade policy against third countries.
- The integration starts first with industrial products, then agricultural.
70s First Enlargement
-Discussion about the budget competence of the parliament.
- Decision of deepen and extend the European community
-Establishment of the monetary union in threes steps during 10 years.
- Budget Treaty.- Establishment of courts of Auditors.
-First direct election of European Parliament.
Accession of UK, Ireland, Denmark into UE
Change of French position and beginning of negotiation with UK, Ireland, Denmark and NORWAY
80s Creation of the Common Market
-Declaration of democracy in Greece
Intensify the supranational power of the community
Extend the integration to another economic and political areas.
Essential to achieve another integration level
-Cohesion Policy: Reduce the economic disparities between the members.
-Delors I package- Decrease the cost of CAP
-Free movement of labour
Cecchini Report.- To evaluate the cost of a separated market
At the summit in June 1984 at Fontainebleau outside Paris, the UK Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher obtained the famous “rebate" for the UK on its contribution to the EU budget. WE WANT OUR MONEY BACK
Accession of Spain and Portugal
-Complete the internal market
-300 items grouped together in the three major categories.
SCHENGEN AGREEMENT Abolition of systematic border controls
Single European Act
-The first major revision of Treaty of Rome.
- Extend the use of qualify majority voting.
-Expansion of decision maker role of the UE parliament.
-Single European currency
Political changes in central and est of Europe.
Cooperation with Hungary and Poland
Negotiation with the FREE TRADE ASSOCIATION (Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, and Switzerland)- CREATION OF EUROPEAN COMMUNITY AREA
90S Deepening Integration
Intensive integration and enlargement of the community.
Delors Package.- Support Financial reform.
Maastricht Treaty (Treaty on European Union)
REVISION OF THE PREVIOUS TREATIES.
FOREIGN AND SECURITY POLICY
POLICE AND JURIDICAL COOPERATION IN CRIMINAL LAW MATTERS
Maastricht Treaty (Treaty on European Union) COME IN FORCE
Deepening integration in economic area.
Move to political cooperation
Accession Finland, Sweden and Austria
Treaty of Amsterdam
Creation of EU LAW
Communiarization of visa, asylum and immigration.
was an action programme of the European Union whose main objectives were to reform the Common Agricultural Policy and Regional policy, and establish a new financial framework for the years 2000–06 with a view to the then upcoming Eastern Enlargement of the European Union.
Charter of Fundamental Rights of European Union
7 chapters. Codify the rights of European citizens
2000s Eastern Enlargement
2000 Treaty of Nice
Revision of the EU Law
Debate about the future of UE
Call Laeken Group
10 Countries: Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia, and Slovenia
Attempt for an European Constitution
Rejected in referendum by France and the Netherlands
Election of Euro Parliament
Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia, and Slovenia
Accession of Bulgaria and Romania
Signed on 50 anniversary of the treaty of Rome
Treaty of Lisbon
It amends the Maastricht Treaty (1992), known in updated form as the Treaty on European Union (2007) or TEU, and the Treaty of Rome (1957), known in updated form as the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (2007) or TFEU. It also amends the attached treaty protocols as well as the Treaty establishing the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM).
Accession of Croatia
Election of Euro Parliament
New Financial Framework
23 June, 2016 - leave won by 51.9% to 48.1%, referendum turnout was 71.8%, with more than 30 million people voting
29 March, 2017 - Article 50 of the Lisbon Treaty has been triggered
Brexit talks - started on 19 June, 2017
UK will depart the EU on 30 March 2019