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Early Modern History Timeline - ERR

  • Period: Mar 4, 1394 to Nov 13, 1460

    Henry the Navigator's Rule

    Henry the Navigator was an important King. He had lots of money and focused on expanding his territory. Henry funded numerous voyages, and many returned successfully. Without his help, the world would be years behind in exploration advancements.
  • Jan 1, 1450

    The Gutenberg Press was Created

    The Gutenberg Press was Created
    The Gutenberg Press was invented in the year 1439. This press was a really big deal because it increased the literacy rate, made books less expensive, and spread ideas.
  • Period: Mar 14, 1473 to

    Spanish Inquisition

    The Inquisition was a long period of torture, questioning, and violence. It took place under the rule of "Bloody" Mary and her husband, Philip II. The purpose was to force out the Protestants using torture. This escalated quickly and became increasingly violent, impacting many generations to come.
  • Period: Jan 28, 1485 to

    The Tudor Family's Rule

    The Tudor family started with Henry VII and ended with Elizabeth I. The Tudors maintained a good balance of power with Parliament. This was crucial because, in comparison to the Stuart family, they had an extremely healthy relationship. This was a big deal because a monarch must work along-side the state. This family set the bar high for rulers to come.
  • Mar 12, 1488

    Bartholomeu Dias Reached the Tip of Africa

    Bartholomeu Dias Reached the Tip of Africa
    On this day, Bartholomeu Dias and the rest of Europe discovered that Africa had a tip. Around the point were storms and harsh currents, earning the name: "cape of storms." Although Dias didn't reach India, he confirmed that there was indeed a water route to reach it. This was important because he paved the way for de Gama and other navigators.
  • Aug 2, 1492

    Christopher Columbus Sets Sail

    Christopher Columbus Sets Sail
    Columbus set sail on August 2nd, 1492. He reached the "New World" while he was looking for the west passage to India. He thought he had reached India, for nobody know there was another continent. He later made several voyages back and forth. If he hadn't gone on this voyage, humanity would have been behind in world exploration.
  • Jun 7, 1494

    The Treaty of Tordesillas was Signed

    This treaty divided the globe in half for Spain and Portugal. Both Catholic countries engaged in a struggle for power, and the Pope wasn't happy. He didn't want two Catholic countries fighting, so he drew a line down the center of the globe, dividing the territory each country could claim. This was called the Line of Demarkation, and the results are still noticeable today. Many areas colonized by Spain are in the western hemisphere whereas the Portuguese had many ports in the east.
  • May 20, 1498

    Vasco da Gama Reached India

    Vasco da Gama Reached India
    This voyage to India was the first of many successful trips for the Portuguese. Da Gama brought back two ships filled with spices, and he sold them for $65 million. This made him very rich and it led to many other successful voyages. This event made Portugal very powerful because they had access to the one thing everyone wanted, spices. The Portuguese became very wealthy selling spices, and this set the time for the rest of global exploration.
  • Jul 2, 1505

    Martin Luther Decides to Become a Monk

    Martin Luther Decides to Become a Monk
    A storm had struck out of the blue, and Martin Luther was stuck in the middle of the harsh storm. He prayed to God to get him home safely, and he did. He vowed that he would become a monk in return. This pivotal point really impacted the following years to come because Luther was a very successful monk, spread his ideas far, and ended up creating a new religion.
  • Sep 25, 1513

    Vasco Nuñez de Balboa Discovers the Pacific Ocean

    Vasco Nuñez de Balboa Discovers the Pacific Ocean
    When de Balboa landed in Panama, he walked across the small stretch of land with his small crew. He was in for a surprise when he realized that there was another whole ocean. This new information paved the way for new explorers and voyages.
  • Oct 31, 1517

    Martin Luther Posts the Ninety-Five Theses

    Martin Luther Posts the Ninety-Five Theses
    Martin Luthor posts the 95 Theses on the church doors for all to see. He did this at night so nobody would see him and the next morning was All Saints Day. This meant everyone would see the document when they went to church on the "holiest day of the year." This document kick-started the Reformation.
  • Sep 20, 1519

    Ferdinand Magellan Sets Sail

    Ferdinand Magellan Sets Sail
    On this day in 1519, Ferdinand Magellan and his crew set sail. They wanted to prove that the Line of Demarcation meant that Portugal owned everything because the world was round. Magellan's crew made a successful trip and circumnavigated the globe. This was a giant step forward and a big revelation to many. It was not widely believed that the world was round. Many people believed there was a giant waterfall at the end of the Earth. Voyages like Magellan's prove this wrong.
  • Apr 17, 1521

    Diet of Worms

    Diet of Worms
    The Diet of Worms was a public meeting between Charles V and Martin Luther. They discuss and debate the different beliefs of Christianity, but Luther is considered a heretic. His works are banned and he is a wanted man.
  • Aug 15, 1521

    Aztecs Were Conquered

    The Aztecs were conquered by Hernan Cortes. He defeated them by taking out their capital city. The Aztecs had no immunity to European diseases the Spanish brought over, so many of them died of smallpox. This destruction of a civilization impacted the culture for many years to come.
  • May 23, 1533

    Henry VIII Annuls His Marriage

    On this day, Henry VIII met with Thomas Cramer to discuss his situation. He wanted to annul his marriage and break away from the Catholic Church. As a result, Anglicanism was created.
  • Apr 8, 1546

    Council of Trent First Meets

    The Council of Trent met to discuss the Counter-Reformation or the Catholic Reformation. This council reevaluated the practices and teachings of Catholicism. In turn, it made Catholicism look more appealing and it compelled people to stay Catholic.
  • Mar 21, 1555

    Thomas Cramer Is Burned on the Stake

    Thomas Cramer Is Burned on the Stake
    During the Inquisition, Thomas Cramer is burned at the stake by Mary. This was a big deal because he had helped Henry create Anglicanism, and by killing him, Mary asserted the dominance of Catholicism.
  • Jan 16, 1566

    Charles V Abdicates the Throne

    Overwhelming power, wars, sickness, strict religious rules, and many other mishaps are a few reasons why Charles V abdicated the throne. The immense power he had led to repercussions. He was very Catholic, and when the Reformation started in his territory, he was livid. His territory also bordered the Ottoman Empire, and they had been in a struggle for countless years. With the most powerful person gone, the Reformation flourished.
  • Aug 23, 1572

    St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre Begins

    St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre Begins
    A simple misunderstanding led to about 30,000 deaths in France. The misunderstanding started when a group of soldiers killed a major Protestant leader for no reason. This created a ripple effect and ended with civilians waking up to kill Protestants. This lasted for about a week and only ended when a treaty was made. The Protestants lost many important figures, the population of France was thrown off, and the religious issues only grew.
  • Dec 13, 1577

    Francis Drake Sets Sail to Eventually Circumnavigated the Globe

    Francis Drake Sets Sail to Eventually Circumnavigated the Globe
    Francis Drake had been pirating Spanish ships for a long time. This time was no different, except he pursued the ship a long way and became the first Englishman and the second ship to make this journey. This was a big deal because people were terrified of him. He was thought to have a magic teleporting mirror, and this circumnavigation strengthened that theory. Francis Drake was feared enough that he was extremely intimidating when put in command of the English navy.
  • The Spanish Armada Gets Defeated

    The Spanish Armada Gets Defeated
    Phillip II wanted to conquer England because of the following: they were Anglican, Elizabeth turned him down, and he wanted more power. The plan was to ferry the Spanish army over to conquer England while the armada held the navy. Unfortunately, the date of the invasion was misunderstood and the Spanish Armada was defeated. The result of this event was that England was a new world power, people thought God supported Protestants, and Spain had no army or money.
  • The Edict of Nantes Was Created

    Catholicism and Calvinism were struggling for dominance over each other. As a result, the Edict of Nantes clarified Catholicism was the main religion, but Calvinists could practice their religion and run for office. This was an early example of religious tolerance that was really important. In France, this topic caused many more civil wars and conflicts.
  • The Dutch East India Company Was Created

    Monarchs always funded all of the voyages, so monarchs got all of the profits. This system changed when the Dutch East India company sold small shares of a voyage. This meant the more money you put in, the more money you get out. This drastically changed the society and economy for many reasons. The biggest reasons were that there were more voyages and a large increase in wealth in the merchant class.
  • Period: to

    Stuart Family's Rule

    The Stuart family came to rule England after Elizabeth I had passed away and left no heirs. James I was called upon to begin his rule. The Stuart family was High Anglican. This meant that they believed in many Catholic-like procedures and rituals, but was labeled as Anglican. One idea they believed in was the Divine Right of Kings. This meant that they didn't think Parliament should be in place because they were sent by God to rule. This caused much tension between Parliament and the crown.
  • Period: to

    Thirty Years' War

    The Thirty Year's War was a war that started with religious conflict. This conflict was between Protestants and Catholics. With bout eight million casualties, religious changes, and more, this big war greatly impacted the flow of society.
  • Louis XIV Begins His Rule

    Louis XIV Begins His Rule
    Louis becoming the monarch changed France forever. This was because he set ridiculous rules ad schedules, made a ranking of which nobles he liked the best, waged war after war, and many more crazy decisions. He had absolute power and made many mistakes, leading to the economic downfall of France. Louis XIV's judgments still affected the economy for years to come.
  • Charles I Gets Executed

    Charles I Gets Executed
    Charles I was a High Anglican who believed in the Divine Right of Kings. This meant that he thought he and he alone should rule without any help. Parliament was not happy with this because they still wanted the people to have a say. Eventually, Charles I was killed because he had attempted to kill Parliament and for many other reasons. This was a big deal because this was one of the first examples of regicide or killing kings, and this led England into the Commonwealth period.
  • Period: to

    The Commonwealth Period

    This period was placed in response to Charles I's poor ruling. The Puritans were in charge during this time, so there were very strict rules on what one could and couldn't do in regard to leisure. During these eleven years, Parliament met frequently. There was no monarch in place. When. this system failed, and Parliament ushered in the Restoration, where they restored the monarchy. This was a crucial time period because it made people realize what the good aspects of a monarch were.
  • Glorious Revolution Occurs

    James II was a Catholic king, but England was still mainly Anglican, so there was some conflict. James had two daughters who were raised Calvinist, so the people were okay with his rule. When James had a Catholic son, things weren't looking good for the Protestants. They wanted a Protestant ruler, so they invited the Netherlands to conquer them. This was because William and Mary, the monarchs, were Protestant. This was the Glorious Revolution because England revolted with no bloodshed.
  • Bill of Rights Gets Signed

    The Bill of Rights came into play when William and Mary were ruling after the Glorious Revolution. Two major points were that England would become a Constitutional monarchy and the Parliament would meet every so often without the King calling them. Overall, this document impacted the system England runs on for a long time.