Teutonic

Chapter 7 - 11

By gnard03
  • 313

    Edict of Milan

    Edict of Milan
    letter signed by emperor Constantine which guaranteed religious toleration within the Roman Empire
  • 395

    Byzantine Empire

    Byzantine Empire
    the Eastern Roman Empire, centered around the capital of Constantinople. The Byzantine Empire existed for more than a thousand years, from the 4th century to 1453. During most of its existence, it remained one of the most powerful economic, cultural, and military forces in Europe
  • 410

    Sack of Rome

    Sack of Rome
    The city was attacked by the Visigoths, led by Alaric I. This was the first time in almost 800 years that Rome had fallen to an enemy. The sacking of 410 is seen as a major landmark in the decline and fall of the Western Roman Empire.
  • 509

    Clovis

    Clovis
    first Catholic King of the Franks to unite all Frankish tribes under one ruler (modern day France)
  • 530

    Rule of Benedict

    Rule of Benedict
    book of precepts for monks living communally under the authority of an abbot. During the 1500 years of its existence, it has become the leading guide in Western Christianity for monastic living in community. The spirit of St Benedict's Rule is summed up in the motto of the Benedictine Confederation: peace, prayer and work
  • 534

    Courpus Juris Civilis

    Courpus Juris Civilis
    "Body of Civil Law" issued by the Eastern Roman Emperor Justinian. Sometimes referred to as the Code of Justinian.
  • 570

    Life of Muhammad

    Life of Muhammad
    570-632; the founder of the religion of Islam. Considered by Muslims to be the messenger and prophet of God.
  • Jan 1, 661

    Umayyad Empire

    Umayyad Empire
    The second Islamic caliphate, which was founded in Arabia after the Prophet Muhammad's death. The Umayyads ruled the Islamic world from Damascus between 661 and 750 A.D., when the caliphate was overthrown by the founder of the Abbasid Caliphate.
  • Oct 14, 732

    Battle of Poitiers

    Battle of Poitiers
    also known as the Battle of Tours; pitted Charles Martel's Frankish army against Islamic forces. A notable turning point in the struggle against Islam in Europe
  • Nov 14, 750

    Abbasid Caliphate

    Abbasid Caliphate
    the dynastic name generally given to the caliphs of Baghdad, the (750 - 1258) second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Muslim empire, which overthrew the Umayyid caliph. Flourished for two centuries, but slowly went into eclipse with the rise to power of the Turkish army. Their claim to power was finally ended in 1258, when Hulagu Khan, the Mongol general, sacked Baghdad.
  • Nov 14, 768

    Reign of Charlemagne

    Reign of Charlemagne
    (768-814) "Charles the Great"; King of the Franks who turned a kingdom into an empire encompassing most of Western and Central Europe. Crowned Emperor on Christmas Day in 800 by Pope Leo III. Associated with the Carolingian Renaissance which revived art, religion and culture during the Middle Ages.
  • Aug 13, 843

    Treaty of Verdun

    Treaty of Verdun
    treaty which divided the Carlolingian Empire into three seperate kingdoms within Western and Central Europe.
  • Sep 14, 988

    Vladimir’s Conversion to Christianity

    Vladimir’s Conversion to Christianity
    consulted with envoys from several religions, ultimately rejecting most of them because they did not tolerate drinking. Finally accepted Orthodox Christianty and become tied with the Byzantine Empire.
  • Nov 14, 1000

    Development of the Carruca

    	Development of the Carruca
    A carruca is a heavy, wheeled plow. The development of the carruca was essential to the success of agriculture in Europe, since it allowed farmers to till the dense soil of the region with greater ease.
  • May 1, 1054

    Great Schism

    Great Schism
    the split between the Eastern and Western Christian Churches. The Christian Church split along doctrinal, theological, linguistic, political, and geographic lines, which led to the development of the modern Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches.
  • Dec 1, 1066

    William of Normandy

    William of Normandy
    also known as William the Conqueror; the Duke of Normandy who invaded England in 1066 to press his claim to the English crown. Notable for his victory at the Battle of Hastings.
  • Nov 14, 1075

    Investiture Controversy

    Investiture Controversy
    the most significant conflict between Church and state in medieval Europe. In the 11th and 12th centuries, a series of Popes challenged the authority of European monarchies over control of appointments, or investitures, of church officials such as bishops and abbots. The entire controversy was finally resolved by the Concordat of Worms in 1122.
  • Nov 14, 1088

    Founding of the University of Bologna

    Founding of the University of Bologna
    the oldest university in the world. The university is historically notable for its teaching of canon (religious) and civil law. Located in Bologna, Italy
  • Nov 14, 1100

    Crusades

    Crusades
    The Crusades were a series of religious wars, blessed by the Pope and the Catholic Church with the main goal of restoring Christian access to the holy places in and near Jerusalem. The crusaders comprised military units from all over western Europe, and were not under unified command. The main series of Crusades occurred between 1095 and 1291
  • Jul 21, 1160

    Innocent III

    Innocent III
    (1160-1216) one of the most powerful and influential popes in the history of the papacy, who exerted a wide influence over the Christian regimes of Europe, claiming supremacy over all of Europe's kings. The pope called for crusades against militant heretics like the Muslims. One of Pope Innocent's most critical decisions was in calling upon Christian forces to begin The Fourth Crusade.
  • Jun 15, 1215

    Magna Carta

    Magna Carta
    the "Great Charter", the first document forced on the English King by a group of subjects in an attempt to limit his powers and protect their privileges.
  • Dec 12, 1241

    English Parliament

    English Parliament
    the Legislative branch of the Kingdom of England which progressively limited the power of the English Monarchy.
  • Jan 1, 1302

    French Estates General

    French Estates General
    During the reign of Philip III, the French people were divided up into three distinct classes. They included those who prayed, those who fought and everyone else. These three groups, or estates, were referred to as the Estates General. The Estates General became the governing body of France in the Middle Ages.
  • Mar 1, 1309

    Avignon Papacy

    Avignon Papacy
    the period from 1309 to 1376 during which seven Popes resided in Avignon, in modern-day France. The first Frenchman to be elected as pope, Clement V, occured in 1305, which was an unpopular outcome in Rome. The next several elected popes lived in exile in France until 1376.
  • Nov 14, 1337

    Hundred Years’ War

    Hundred Years’ War
    actually 116 years in duration (1337-1453), a territorial and dynastic conflict which gave rise to the idea of English and French nationalism, and expelled the English out of French territory.
  • Oct 14, 1347

    Black Death

    Black Death
    The Black Death was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, peaking in Europe between 1347 and 1351. The bubonic plague is estimated to have killed 30–60 percent of Europe's population, the aftermath of which created a series of religious, social and economic upheavals and had profound effects on the course of European history.
  • Nov 14, 1414

    Council of Constance

    Council of Constance
    (1414-1418) The council's main purpose was to end the Papal schism which had resulted from the confusion following the Avignon Papacy. The Catholic world ended up with a single head based in Rome, but it was not easy to revive the old, unquestioning loyalty to the pope.