Chapter 17

  • Mar 4, 1242

    Mongol Invasion of Russia

    The mongols invaed Russia. It wuld be under mongol control for nearly 500 years.
  • Period: Apr 5, 1462 to Oct 27, 1505

    Reign of Ivan III of Russia

    Ivan III helped to end Mongol control of Russia. During the start of his reign, the conquering Mongols rewarded local princes who enforced their rule and collected their taxes. Ivan III used this to grow into a powerful autocrat. By 1480, Ivan III was powerful enough to stop acknowledging th Mongols as his supreme ruler.
  • Mar 4, 1480

    The Conquest of Novgorod

    Ivan III annexed Novgorod and confiscated 80% of the land for himself. H distributed the remaining land to members of his service nobility, who kept the land on the condition that they served in Ivan's army.
  • Mar 4, 1500

    Freedom for the Peasants

    By this date, nearly all of the Western peasants were free from serfdom. This occured because so many had been killed by the black death that the number remaining were more economically valuable. Due to this, they were able to demand greater freedom. This did not occur in Eastern Europe. In fact, in 1500 a lord could demand up to six days of unpaid work a week.
  • Period: Sep 30, 1520 to Sep 5, 1566

    Reign of Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent

    Suleiman was the ruler of the Ottoman EMpire. His army had almost captured Vienna in 1529. He issignificant because of his use of the millet system. Each religous group in SOutheast Europe was given semi-autonomous self-governmnt. This religious toleration allowed for stability. On a yearly basis, he levied a tax on the "nations" of several thousand male children. Some would work in his bureaucracy while other formed the bulk of his jannisary corps. He was the last strong Ottoman ruler.
  • Period: Dec 3, 1533 to

    Reign of Ivan IV

    Ivan IV helped to create the Russian state. He removed the boyars from poer, absorbed Kazan and Astrakhan between 1552 to 1556 and added vast ew territory to Russia. He broke up boyar estates and gave them to his loyal supporters. His purges against the Byars left Russia depopulated and he attempted to make all people subservient to him.
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    Time of Troubles

    Following the death of Ivan the Terrible heir in 1598, his relatives fought for power in a violent and chaotic struggle. The struggle was complicated by multiple cossack and peasant uprisings. The Time of Troubles ended in 1613 when nobles elected Michael Romanov as Tsar.
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    Reign of Ferdinand II of Austria

    Ferdinand II is significant because he crushed the Bohemian Estates in AUstria. Th estates were largely Protestant and had risen up in defense of Protestant rights in 1618. After their 1620 defeat at the Battle of the White Mountain, Ferdinand II reduced the power of the estates. He confiscated the land of Protestant nobles and gave it to loyal Catholic nobles.
  • Battle of the White Mountain

    The battle ended the Bohemian Estates power in Austria. Their defeat allowed Ferdinand II to take more direct control over Austria.
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    Reign of Ferdinand III

    Ferdinand II helped to centralize Austria.He created a permanent standing army to oppose the Ottomans.
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    Reign of Frederick William

    Frederick William ruled Prussia. He is significant because he attempted to unite three of the German provinces. He cames into conflict with the Estates of Brandenburg and Prussia, which were representativ bodies (dominated by the landowning class, or junker) that had control of the purse. He eventually won the conflict with the estates.
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    Reign of Alexis of Russia

    Alexis is significant because of his attempted religious reforms. Starting in 1652, he attempted to purify the "corrupted" practices of the Russian Orthodox church. This caused massive civilian protests. Communities of "Old Believers" were formed and hunted down by the state.
  • Loss of Freedom for Russian Peasants

    Russian peasants permanently lose the right to to move from estate to estate. This demonstrates that the peasants were losing their rights in Eastern Europe.
  • Hereditary Subjugation

    This legally bound peasants and any children they may have had to a lord. This is significant because it created reinforced the existance of a legally inferior class.
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    The Tartars Invade

    The Tartars of the Southern Crimea in Russia invaded Prussia and carried off nearly 50 thousand people as slaves. The invasion gave Frederick William even more powr over the estates because his demands for money became more urgent.
  • Taxation Without Consent in Prussia

    To pay for a permanent standing army, Frederick William forced the estates to accept taxation without consent. Due to this, William gained financial independece and superior force over the estates.
  • Stenka Razin's Rebellion

    Razin, a Russian Cossack, waged a war against the wealthy boyars for exploiting the peasants. He gained the support of many peasants, who joined him by killing their lords and burning their manors. The war ended in 1670. Razin's peasant army was crushed by crack calvary units and Razin was executed. The event is significant because Razin nurtured dreams of rebellion that inspired future revolutionaries.
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    Reign of Peter the Great of Russia

    Peter is significant because of his reforms of the military.He created a large permanent army and maintained an alliance with Austria and Poland against the Ottoman Empire.He entered into a secret alliance with Denmark against Sweden. This started the Great Northern War.
  • Ottoman Siege on Vienna

    A large Turkish fleet surrounded the city of Vienna. It was forced to retreat due to the intervention of Polish, Bavarian, Saxon and Habsburg troops. THe allies attacked the Ottomans on all fronts and almost all of Hungary had been conquered by 1699. This demonstrated that the Ottoman Empire was weakening.
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    Reign of Frederick III

    Frederick III of Prussia was a weak monarch. He imitated Louis XIV of France by building a palace and cultivating the arts. He was weak in body and mind.
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    The Great Northern War

    The war pitted Russia and Denmark against Sweden. Denmark was quickly defeated and Russia was attacked by Sweden. Peter the Great responded by reforming the bureaucracy, demanding military service from both nobles and peasants. The Russians eventually defeated the Swdes. Russia annexed modern-day Estonia and Lativia and Russia became the dominate power in the Baltic.
  • Russia Seizes a Swedish Outpost

    This desolate, Swedish outpost would become the city of Saint Petersburg.
  • Francis Rakoczy's Revolt

    The revolt was startd by Hungarian nobles who resisted the efforts of the Protestant Habsburgs. They were determined to retain their independence and were often supported by Hungarian peasans. The revolt was crushed by the Habsburgs. However, Charles VI was forced to restore many rights of the Hungarian nobles in exchange for their support.
  • Defeat of Charles XII

    Russian forces defeated Swedish forces in Ukraine at Poltava. The battle is significant because the Swedes never regained their offensive against the Russians.
  • Construction Starts on St. Petersburg

    Following the defeat of the Swdish threat, Peter the Great ordered the construction of a new city with straight roads, canals, buildings that fit architectural regulations, street lights and stone bridges. Each social group would be given a part of the city to live in.Up to forty thousand peasants were forced to work on the city each summer while the nobels were required to pay for structures in the city and their own houses.
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    Reign of Frederick William I

    King Frederick William I of Prussia greatly expanded the might of the Prussian army. He nearly doubled the number of soliders, coerced the Junkers into becoming oficers, and trained the ary with skill and precision. He also improved the bureaucracy by making it more centralized.
  • The Pragmatic Sanction

    In the sanction, Charles VI stated that Habsburg possesion would not be divided and that they must go to a single heir. The heir could be female because Charles VI was the last male in his line.
  • Prussia has the Fourth Largest Army in Europe

    This demonstrates the effects of Frederick William I's overhaul of the military.
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    Reign of Elizabeth

    Elizabeth, Peter the Great's daughter, continued the construction of St. Petersburg. She hired Bartolomeo Rastrelli to design palaces and government building in the city. She also established flashy courts within the city.
  • The Population of St. Petersburg Reaches 300,000

    This demonstrates the success the Russian monarchs had at turning a desolate outpost into a city. In fact, St. Petersburg was one of the largest cities in Europe.