The Birth of Peter the GreatThe future Peter the Great was born Pyotr Alexeyevich Romanov in Moscow, Russia.
Peter became Co-tsars with Ivan VPeter started to rule with his half-brother, Ivan V, when he was 10 years old because Feodor died in 1682.
Ivan V was next in line for the throne, but he was chronically ill and of infirm mind.
Therefore, Boyar Duma (a council of Russian nobles) chose the Peter to become co-tsars with Ivan V.
The First NavyPeter the Great began building the first real Russian navy in 1695.
He launched about thirty ships against the Ottomans in 1696, capturing Azov in July of that year. On 12 September 1698, Peter officially founded the first Russian Navy base, Taganrog.
The Grand EmbassyThe Grand Embassy was a famous trip by Peter where he learned about life in Western Europe.
Western Europe influenced Peter and westernization helped the influence of Russia have better education, such as science and technological advancements. He also modernized the Russian alphabet, introduced the Julian calendar, and established the first Russian newspaper as a result of this trip.
He learned about western clothing and made people shave their beards.
Streltsy UprisingMany people were against Peter's demands for bringing change to Russia. To eliminate Peter as tsar, the Streltsy tried to put Peter's half-sister, Sophia, in power because they believed she would restore a more conservative element to the country.
That's why the Streltsy revolted, but Peter violently tortured them.
Sophia was eventually overthrown, and Peter and Ivan V still were co-tsars.
Revolts against Peter the GreatThere were many revolts because of hatred toward foreign innovations, such as shaving and Western dress.
People also didn't like the idea of the central authority, high taxes, poor conditions of service, and remuneration.
This lead to revolts, such as the Streltsy Uprising.
The First Standing ArmyAt the beginning of Peter's reign, they didn't have much of an army: it was just a bunch of villagers that got together.
Therefore, Peter made the first standing army in Russia, who got together to fight. They were trained and equipped with modern armor and weapons.
These military accomplishments were important to Russia because they expanded Russia's Empire, could defend the Empire better, and had more victories.
Ivan V diedHe ruled with his brother, Ivan V, but after his death, Peter became officially declared Sovereign of all Russia.
Russia was a very underdeveloped nation, compared to the other European countries.
While the Renaissance and the Reformation took place in Europe, Russia remained isolated from modernization.
This is why Peter decided to make extensive reforms in an attempt to reestablish Russia as a great nation.
The Great Northern WarPeter made a temporary peace with the Ottoman Empire that allowed him to keep the captured fort of Azov.
After securing peace with the Ottoman Empire, Peter turned his attentions to gaining territory in the Baltic states.
This began the Great Northern War which lasted twenty-one years.
It was a long conflict but ultimately, Russia was successful and established itself as a major European power.
Ultimately, this was the defining point of Peter’s reign.
St. Petersburg is foundedPeter captured the Swedish fortress of Nyenskans.
It was a lot of work to make it a city because it was like a swamp all muddy.
Work to create a new city continued until St Petersburg was founded and named in the ruler’s honor.
It was also the first warm water port.
St. Petersburg became Russia's new capital in 1712.
Created Senate/ GovernmentHe created the Senate in 1711 to rule in his absence during the Turkish campaign.
He created Swedish-inspired government departments between 1717 and 1720 such as the Colleges of War, Admiralty, and Foreign Affairs, which consumed the bulk of state revenues. The Colleges of Mines and Manufacturing concentrated on production for the war effort, operating iron works, and manufacture of weapons, rope, canvas, uniforms, powder, and other products.
Treaty of NystadThe Treaty of Nystad ended the Great Northern War by making peace between Sweden and Russia.
Russia kept Livonia, Estonia, Ingria and part of Karelia as well as many of the Baltic islands.
Finland was restored to Sweden, and the Russians agreed to pay Sweden an indemnity.
The Treaty confirmed Russia's rise as a major European power and marked the final decline of Sweden as a great power. It also confirmed Russia's control of the Baltic.
Earned title of Emperor of All RussiaSoon after peace was made with Sweden, Peter the Great was officially proclaimed Emperor of All Russia. Some proposed that he take the title Emperor of the East, but he refused.
Peter the Great falls illIn the winter of 1723, he began to suffer problems with his urinary tract and bladder.
In the summer of 1724, a team of doctors performed surgery so the blockage cleared and about four pounds of urine were removed but Peter never truly recovered.
Introduction of Poll TaxesTo Peter the Great, money was the "artery of war."
The number of gradual fiscal measures increased with the introduction of the poll tax, which replaced direct taxation based on households with an assessment of individual males.
Peter also encouraged foreign trade and varied indirect taxes.
Peter the Great Dies at Fifty-TwoPeter dies because he was struck with uremia. An autopsy revealed his bladder to be infected with gangrene. Peter was best known for his extensive reforms in an attempt to establish Russia as a great nation with his forty-two years of reign.