Challenges Of Reconciliation

  • 100

    The Early Church: Reconciliation

    The Early Church: Reconciliation
    The teachings of Christ spoke of confessing your sins. Of how God has mercy on those who ask for forgiveness. Early Christians distinguished between lesser, daily sins and greater, death-dealing sins. Lesser sins could be forgiven through prayer, fasting, works of mercy, and the Eucharistic celebration. Greater sins required a process of reconciliation.
    Tertullian, in De Poenitentia, called it the “second penitence” (baptism being the first) and said it could be received only once.
  • Period: 200 to 300

    The Third Century

    First recognisable form of penance as Reconciliation. It involved the whole community where the penitents would publically confess their sins to the whole community. Their penance was to be temporarily excommunicated from the community. As well as this they would have to eat plain food, dress in rags, participate in almsgiving and prayer.
    When the bishop decided their repentance was adequate he restored them to full communion by the laying on of hands.
  • 220

    Pope Callixtux I

    Pope Callixtux I
    Callixtus was lenient in declaring certain sexual sins as forgivable.
  • Period: 300 to 400

    The Fourth Century

    The sacrament in the fourth century was a public, communal action of reconciliation that led to a lasting change of heart, involved the whole community, and was presided over by the bishop.
  • 325

    The Council of Nicaea

    The Council of Nicaea
    Puts the forgiveness of grave sins under the authority of the bishops. The Council of Nicaea also spelled out a penance for those who had “fallen without compulsion.” They had to:“As many as were communicants, if they heartily repent, shall pass three years among the hearers; for seven years they shall be prostrators; and for two years they shall communicate with the people in prayers, but without oblation.” (Nicaea Canon XI)
  • Period: 400 to 500

    Changes to the Sacrament

    Several changes were made including Presbyters were delegated to be administrators of the Sacrament, not just bishops.
    Leo the Great objected to a public confession and said, “it is enough that the guilt of conscience be revealed to priests alone in secret confession.”
    There were two factors that contributed to the breakdown of the administration of penance at this time:1. There was a large increase in the numbers of Christians2. The development of restrictions in the post-reconciliation life
  • 500

    Irish and Anglo-Saxon monks

    Irish and Anglo-Saxon monks spread what came to be knwon as the 'monastic' practice of penance through their missionary work. This invlolved:
     Private confession to a spiritual father. Reception of an appropriate penance with the goal of restoring the balance of the “moral universe” instead of reconciliation with the community. Private prayer of pardon or blessing after the penance was completed.
  • Period: 500 to Jan 1, 600

    End To Once Only Reconciliation

    The monks put an end to the practice of once-only reconciliation for grave sins and any penance connected to Lent and Easter. Penance become more punitive and less about the persons renewal of faith. There was more of an attitude of “the punishment fitting the crime.”
  • Jan 1, 644

    Tariff Penance

    Council of Chalon-sur-Saône. Bishops gathered in that council were convinced that it was useful for the salvation of the faithful when diocesan bishop prescribed penance to a sinner as many times as he or she would fall into sin (canon 8). The practice of so called tariff penance was brought to continental Europe from the British Isles by Hiberno-Scottish and Anglo-Saxon monks.
  • Jan 1, 650

    Council of Chalons-sur-Saône

    This council approved the Celtic monastic practice and tried to establish Episcopal control over it.The severity of penances led to fewer Christians practicing sacramental penance. Some found other persons who would take on the penance and prayers for them.
  • Jan 1, 1215

    Fourth Lateran Council

    Fourth Lateran Council
     They prescribed that all who had “reached the age of discretion should at least once a year faithfully confess all their sins in secret to their own priest” and receive communion. Sanctions were imposed for breaking the secrecy of confession. A priest who revealed a sin was deposed from his priestly office and “consigned to a closed monastery for perpetual penance.” Repeated absolution of sins was officially accepted and deemed necessary for proper Christian life.
  • Jan 1, 1439

    Council of Florence

    Council of Florence
    Defined what the sacrament of penance involved: The acts of the penitent should be:1. Contrition of heart including sorrow for committing the sin and resolve not to sin again.2. Oral confession of all sins that are remembered.3. Satisfaction for sins assigned by the priest ordinarilydone by prayer, fasting and almsgiving. The form of the sacrament are the words of absolution- “I absolve you.” The minister of the sacrament is a priest with authority to absolve.
  • Jan 1, 1551

    Council of Trent

    Council of Trent
    Pushed for an extreme non-communal, individualistic approach to the sacramental rite of penance to effect reconciliation with God.
    Distinguished two kinds of contrition: “perfect” or “sorrow of the soul and detestation of the sin committed together with the resolve to sin no more”
    Distinguished between what the sacrament required of the faithful and what it did not.
  • Period: to

    World War II

  • Post-war Immigration

    Post-war Immigration
    Immigrants bringing more Religions and new ideas to Australians.
  • Period: to

    Anti Vietnam War

    Rallys against the war.
  • First Televisions In Australia

    First Televisions In Australia
  • Martin Luther King "I Have a Dream"

    Martin Luther King "I Have a Dream"
    Speech given by Martin Luther King at a racial freedom rally.
  • Vatican II

    Vatican II
    Document Lumen Gentium emphasized that in addition to receiving pardon for their sins, penitents are reconciled with the Church which they have “wounded by their sins.”
  • Pope Paul VI in his document Ordo Paenitentiae (Order of Penance), introduces the new name “Sacrament of Reconciliation.”

    Pope Paul VI in his document Ordo Paenitentiae (Order of Penance), introduces the new name “Sacrament of Reconciliation.”
    Offers three rites for celebrating the sacrament:1. Reconciliation of individual penitents.2. Reconciliation of many penitents who are absolved individually.3. Reconciliation of many penitents who make a public confession of sins and together receive a general absolution.
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    Computer Games
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    Legalised Abortion
    Abortion becomes legal in Western Australia
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    The Internet
    First use of the Internet in Australia
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    Facebook (Social Networking)
    A new wave of technology. Millions of users all over the world.
  • The Sacrament Of Reconciliation Today

    The Sacrament Of Reconciliation Today
    Today, the sacrament involves encountering Christ who is present in: the assembly (“two or more gathered in my name”) in the proclamation of the Word in the imposition of hands and in the person of the minister.
  • Augustine distinguished three kinds of reconciliation with God through the Church

    1. The remission of all previous sin through baptism.2. The daily remission through prayer and fasting of “light and small sins.”3. The formal one-time remission of deadly and serious sin through public penance.
  • Third Council of Toledo

    Third Council of Toledo
    This council tried to maintain the old system of reconciliation and remain with once-only reconciliation and rejected the Celtic monastic practice.