Carolingian Renaissance

  • Oct 10, 732

    The Battle of Tours

    In the Battle of Tours, Charles Martel defeated Muslims, or Moors, who had conquered Spain and were looking to continue to expand their territories. Charles Martel's force held firm and Muslims had to retreat back to Spain. This event made a great contribution to the establishment of Carolingian Dynasty over Merovingian Dynasty.
  • Jul 28, 754

    Pepin's Anointment

    In 754, Pope Stephen II publicly anointed Pepin and his two sons. Aware that the Byzantines didn't intended to protect Italy before Lombards' attack and would have no hesitate to abandon the papacy, Pope Stephen II sought Pepin for help. Pepin defeated the Lombards and defended Rome from the threat, as well as securing Ravenna and Perugia, which would become known as the Papal States.
  • Jan 1, 772

    Charlemagne's First Raid on the Saxons

    Known for the resistence against the Christian Faith, Saxons are regarded as mobs with pagan believes. Recognizing the only way to make their conversion is by the sword, Charlemagne started his first raid on the Saxons in 772 AD. The continuious battles last over 30 years, and the law Charlemagne made set severe punishments on the behaviors against Christ's teaching, though these disproportionate punishments egregiously contradicted the true message of the Gospel.
  • Charlemagne's Coronation

    After saving Pope Leo III from the mistreatment of the Roman, on Christmas day, 800 AD, Charlemagne was anointed "Emperor of Rome" by Leo III, with the word "Hall to Charles the Augustus, crowned of God, and the great peace - bringing Emperor of the Romans".
  • Charlemagne's Death

    Soon after Charlemagne's death, through Treaty of Verdun, his three grandchildren divided the Empire into three portions and became the kings. The eastern portion, recieved by Louis the German, later became Holy Roman Empire; the western portion, recieved by Charles the Bald, later became France; the central portion, recieved by Lothair, later became several countries.
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    Carolingian Dynasty