Attatürk's Rise To Power

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    Attaturk's Rise To Power

  • Occupation of Instanbul and Ottoman Government

    The first French troops entered the city on November 12, 1918, followed by British troops the next day. The Italian troops landed in Galata on February 7, 1919.
  • Civil War in Anatolia

    Mustafa Kemal was sent by the Sultan to handle the rebellion. Rather than stopping the movement, he gradually became the leader of the local Turkish resistance group rose up to oppose the occupation and division. Importance #1 This is important because this is the first step of Mustafa Kemal moving into his power in Anatolia.
  • Greek Invasion

    The allies and Greece landed a division in Izmir. The Greek forces secured the city and embarked on a brutal ampaign.
  • The Congress of Erzurum

    The Congress of Erzurum
    Significance #3: The first gathering of the Turkish Nationalist movement, which stated that no priveleges that might impair Turkey's political sovereignty would be granted to the Christians. The congress was the first moment where the new Turkish Government is negotiating about the future of the republic.
  • Congress of Sivas

    The congress at Sivas layed out important decisions which shaped the future policy of the Turkish War of Independence.
  • Aftermath of WW1

    Significant #4: In the 1920s Turkey cast out it's exsiststing monarchies, embarked on vigorous programs of state-sponsered reform. Attatuürk acquired virtual dictatorian powers. He was legally elected, and he attamted to implant in Turkey the attitudes enabled full-fledged democracy. This is the start of Mustafa Kemal's expansion into Turkey.
  • League of Nations

    The division of former Ottoman Arab provinces into new states administers between Britain and France as mandates it is to secure their strategic intersts in the Middle East.
  • Represetatives of Turkish People

    Attaturk attempted to broaden base of resistance by which nationlists could replace Istanbul's governemnt. This resulted in conveying a body of representatives of Turkish people.
  • Grand National Assembly

    Grand National Assembly
    Importance #2: Grand National Assembly convene for the first time. It was composed of representatives from Anatolia and Thrace and also including several members of the dissolved Ottoman parliament. They convened and agreed to form a government with Mustafa Kemal as their President. This meeting occured in Ankara because Istanbul is still under Britain. It is the first recognition of Mustafa Kemal as the President of the state of Turkey.
  • Assertion of leadership

    In June 1920 Mustafa Kemal gradually asserted his leadership of the national movement, but when Sultan's governemtn know about it, it dissmissed him from service. Then he became part of the rebel army; the resistance made the population aware of Greek invasion
  • Treaty of Sevres

    Treaty of Sevres
    Italy and France were to divide Anatolia; an independent Armenia, Greece was to rescieve territory in Thrace within 25 miles from Istanbul, Greece was awarded the night to administer the part of city of Izmir and it's adjacent regions, the Turkish straits were to be administered by an allied commission, the finances of the government wer placed under allied control. In addition Capitulations were restorted
  • USSR & Turkey

    Turkey and the Soviet Union invaded Armenia and divided its territory. It was the first stage in dismantling the Treaty of Sevres.
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    Capturing Bursa

    Greeks captured Bursa and penetrated into Anatolia and posed a threat to Kemal's fledging national movement.
  • Renouncing National Pact

    Significance #5: The assembly adopted the constitution containing the National Pact. It renounced any territorial claims to former Arab provinces. Also it affirmed the right to full Turkish sovereignty. This is the shift to recognizing an independant Turkey.
  • Armstrice of Mundaya

    Turkey, Greece, Britain, signed Armstrice of Mundaya which arranged withdrawal of Greek armed forces and called for a peace conference to renegotiate Treaty of Serves.
  • Abolishing the Sultanate

    The Grand Assembly passed a resolution that ended the sultanate and seperated the caliphate. The caliphate instead became a religious office with no political power. Importance #1: This provids Attaturk with the power of the country to Mustafa Kemal, and officially makes him the leader of Turkey.
  • Treaty of Lausanne

    Treaty of Luasanne was signed Turkish sovereignty was recognized over all areas claimed by national pact.
  • Attaturk as President

    Attaturk as President
    Mustafa Kemal becomes the first president of Turkey.