Ashleigh Lowe Childhood Development

  • Prenatal - Fertilization/2Weeks

    Prenatal - Fertilization/2Weeks
    Fertilization through two weeks is the Germinal Stage. Cells are rapidly divviding and becoming specialized. Photo Credit:
  • Prenatal - 2-8 Weeks

    Prenatal - 2-8 Weeks
    This is the Embryonic Stage. There are a lot of different developments going on for the major organs and basic anatomy. In the beginning weeks, there are three distinct layers, each later forming different sets of structures - Skin, hair, teeth, sense organs, brain, spinal cord, digestive system, liver, pancreas, respiratory system, muscles, bones, blood and circulatory system. Towards the later weeks, eyes, nose, lips, teeth and rapid head + brain growth.
    Photo Credit:
  • Prenatal - 3 Months

    Prenatal - 3 Months
    During the third month, we now call the embryo a fetus. The fetus has learned to swallow and also to urinate. Their arms develop, hands develop fingers and their fingers develop further. Photo Credit:
  • Prenatal - 4 Months

    Prenatal - 4 Months
    During the fourth month, the mother should be able to start feeling the movements of her child. Photo Credit:
  • Prenatal - 7 Months

    Prenatal - 7 Months
    During the seventh month, the mother can feel hard kicks and hiccups. The baby will begin to suck it's thumb, open and close its eyes and clench its fists. Photo Credit:
  • Prenatal - 9 Months

    Prenatal - 9 Months
    The fetus is now fully developed and could live outside of the mom. Fetus may seem less active as it grows bigger and is settling into the birthing position. Photo Credit:
  • Infant - Newborn

    Infant - Newborn
    When an infant is born, they are born with 100-200 billion neurons, the nerve cells of the body. They sleep on an average of 16-17 hours/daily.
  • Infant - 3 Months

    Infant - 3 Months
    By three months of age, infants can coordinate movementts of limbs. The infant can smile and also raises their head and chest when on their tummy.
  • Infant - 4 Months

    Infant - 4 Months
    At 4 months, the infant can voluntarily reach out.
  • Infant - 5 Months

    Infant - 5 Months
    At 5 months, the average infant's birthweight has doubled to 15 pounds.
  • Infant - 6 Months

    Infant - 6 Months
    At 6 months, most infants can sit unsupported. They can roll over, babble, laugh and have great head control.
  • Infant - 8-10 Months

    Infant - 8-10 Months
    By 8-10 months, infants will be able to crawl, sit without support, respond to familiar words, clap and learn to pull themself up to a standing position.
  • Infant - 9 Months

    Infant - 9 Months
    By 9 months, most infants can pull themself up and hold onto furniture.
  • Infant - 1 Year

    Infant - 1 Year
    By 1 year, most infants can walk. The average infant's weight has trippled to 22 pounds.
  • Toddler - 14 Months

    Toddler - 14 Months
    The average toddler at 14 months can build towers of two cubes.
  • Toddler - 16 Months

    The average toddler at 16 months can walk up steps.
  • Toddler - 17-24 Months

    Toddler - 17-24 Months
    The average toddler at 17-24 months can begin to show self awareness. They learn to see other people as compliant agents, "beings similiar to tthemselves who behavve under their own poower and who have the capacity to respond to infant's requests." Page 175
  • Toddler - 23-25 Months

    Toddler - 23-25 Months
    The average toddler at 23-25 months can jump in place, are conscious of their lack of ability to carry out difficult tasks and are unhappy about it.
  • Toddler - 2 Years Old

    Toddler - 2 Years Old
    The average toddler at 2 years old begins to demonstrate empathy. This "is an emotional response that corresponds to the feelings of another person." Page 175. "Infants sometimes comfort others or show concern for them." Page 175.
    They use deception in games and to fool others.
    "By the end of infancy children have developed the rudiments of their own personal theory of mind." Page 176.
    They can drink out of a cup without spilling.
  • 2 Years Old - Emotion

    By the time a child is 2, they can understand that others have emotions.
  • 3 or 4 - Emotion

    By the time a child is 3 or 4, they can distinguish between mental phenomena and physical actuality. They are able to imagine and pretend.
  • 3 Years - Friendships

    By age 3, children begin to develop real friendships.
  • 3 - 4 Years - Race

    When a child is 3 or 4 years old, they begin to distinguish between members of different races.
  • 4 Years Old - Play

    By the time a child is 4 years old, they begin to engage in constructive play. This involved manipulating objects to produce or build something.
  • Preschoolers - Self-Concept

    During the preschool years, ages 3-6, children begin to form ttheir self-concept. They begin to form their identity, or their set of beliefs about what they are like.
  • Older Preschoolers - Play

    Older preschoolers engage in functional play, which involves simple, repetitive activities.
  • Middle Childhood - Steady Growth

    Middle Childhood - Steady Growth
    Middle childhood marks slow and steady growth, averaging about 5-7 pounds and 2-3 inches per year. This is the only time that girls are, on average, taller than boys. Photo Credit:
  • Middle Childhood - Gross And Fine Motor Skills

    Middle Childhood - Gross And Fine Motor Skills
    Gross and fine motor skills are developing substantially during this time period.

    There is an improvement in muscle cordination and also gross motor skills.
    With the help of the increase in the amount of myelin insulating the brain neurons between the ages of 6-8, fine motor skills advance. Photo Credit:
  • Middle Childhood - Mobility

    Middle Childhood - Mobility
    Increasing independence and mobility of this age leads to new safety issues. Photo Credit:
  • Middle Childhood - Impairment

    Middle Childhood - Impairment
    1 out of every 1,000 students requires special education services due to visual impairment.
    3-5% have a speech impairment.
    2.3 million school-age children have a learning disability.
    3-5% estimated to have attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Photo Credit:
  • Middle Childhood - Concrete Operational Period

    Middle Childhood - Concrete Operational Period
    Piaget suggested that children enter the concrete operational period, capable of applying logical thought process to concrete problems.
    In 7-12 year olds, the concrete operational stage takes place, which is characterized by the active and appropriate use of logic. Photo Credit:
  • Middle Childhood -Language Development

    Middle Childhood -Language Development
    The language development at this age is substantial, with improvements in vocabulary, syntax, and pragmatics.
    The most significant development is the increase in metalinguistic awareness, or an understanding of one's own use of language. Photo Credit:
  • Middle Childhood - Reading

    Middle Childhood - Reading
    Reading develops in several broad, frequently overlapping stages. Photo Credit:
  • Middle Childhood - Coregulation

    Middle Childhood - Coregulation
    The middle childhood period contains a period of coregulation, or a transition stage during which children and parents jointy control the children's behavior. Photo Credit:
  • Middle Childhood - Friends V. Parents

    Middle Childhood - Friends V. Parents
    During middle childhood, children spend significantly less time with their parents, though parents remain major influences in their children's lives. Photo Credit:
  • Adolescence- Puberty

    Adolescence- Puberty
    Girls will go through puberty on average around 11 or 12 years of age.
    Boys will go through puberty on average around 13 or 14 years of age. Photo Credit:
  • Adolescence - Myelination

    Adolescence - Myelination
    During adolescence, there is an increase in the production of myelination. Myelination is the process in which nerve cells are insulated by a covering of fat cells, which increase and contribute to the growing cognitive abilities. Photo Credit:
  • Adolescence - Formal Operational Stage

    Adolescence - Formal Operational Stage
    During adolescence, the formal operational stage takes place. This is where people develop the ability to think abstractly. Piaget suggested that people reach this at 12. Photo Credit:
  • Adolescence - Metacognition

    Adolescence - Metacognition
    During adolesence, metacognition takes place. This is the knowledge that people have about their own thinking processes and their ability to monitor their cognition. Though this takes place minimally in earlier stages, adolescents are better at this. Photo Credit:
  • Adolescence - Egocentrism

    Adolescence - Egocentrism
    Adolescent egocentrism is a state of self-absorption in which the world is viewed from one's own point of view. This also involves an Imaginary Audience, where fictitious observers who pay as much attention to adolescents behavior as they do themselves and also Personal Fables, where the view held by some adolescents that what happens to tthem is unique, excetional, and shared by no one else. Photo Credit:
  • Adolescence - Moral Development

    Adolescence - Moral Development
    Psychologist Lawrence Kohlberg suggested that moral development happened in a three-level sequence, further sub-divided into six stages.
    Level 1 - Preconventional morality
    Level 2 - Concentional morality
    Level 3 - Postconventional morality Photo Credit:
  • Adolescence - Identity Versus Identity Confusion Stage

    Adolescence - Identity Versus Identity Confusion Stage
    The Identity-Versus-Identity Confusion Stage is the period during which teenagers seek to determine what is unique and distinctive about themselves. Photo Credit:
  • Adolescence - Autonomy

    Adolescence - Autonomy
    Adolescence is a time for seeking out autonomy, meaning to have independence and a sense of control over one's life. Photo Credit: