Little girl hairstyles toddler hairstyles

Melody's Language Timeline : Rebekah and Kirsten

  • Infant Milestone Description

    Infancy occurs from birth to 12 months. Infants discover phonological awareness as well as semantic development. Infants learn to mimic phonetic sounds of native language at 4-6 months and create their first word by 12 months. Communication such as cooing and gooing occur within the first 4 months of life. Joint attention and prosodic cues allow the infant to identify syllables and stress patterns.
  • Infant Milestones: Birth

    (Form) Phonology: Discriminates language from different rhythmic classes; produces reflexive sounds
    Example- Melody turns her head every time her mother shifts between English and French.
    (Content) Semantics: Looks forward toward source of sound;startled at loudness
    Example- Melody jumps and looks towards the door as it slams.
    (Use) Pragmatics: Prefers infant directed speech to adult directed; begins to attend social partners
  • Infant Milestones: 2 months

    (Form) Phonology: Distinguishes between own and nonnative language; cooing and gooing sounds
    (Content) Semantics: Inspects and hold objects; mouths objects
    Example: Melody picks up a block and places it in her mouth.
    (Use) Pragmatics: Aware of strangers and unfamiliar situations; glances at people
    Example- Strangers stop the mother at the store with Melody and make googly eyes at Melody. Melody glances at them and shrieks.
  • Infant Milestones: 4 months

    (Form) Phonology: Produces vowel sounds, glides, squeals, and growls
    (Content) Semantics: Distinguishes between purposeful and accidental actions; begin to form object categories
    Example: Mommy gasps as Melody knocks over the blocks, making Melody aware of the accidental action.
    (Use) Pragmatics: Recognizes name; fixes gaze on face
    Example: "Look, Melody" her mother exclaims. Melody glances up with her mouth wide open.
  • Infant Milestones : 6 months

    (Form) Phonology- Discriminate between allophones; segment words fluency; uses primary stress
    Example: Uncle Mike comes to visit and speaks in his native language. Melody looks up and gasp at the change in stress.
    (Content) Semantics: Attempts to imitate gestures; understands no
    (Use) Pragmatics: Engages in joint attention
  • Infant Milestones : 8 months

    (Form) Phonology: Pays attention to phonetic detail; babbles reduplicated; distinguish between native and nonnative phonotactic patterns
    (Content) Semantics: Looks in correct place for objects out of sight;
    (Use) Pragmatics: uses intentional communication; uses preverbal language functions
    Example: Melody's mother puts the spoon down to pick up the phone and Mel screams in protest.
  • Infant Milestones: 10 months to 12 Months

    (Form) Phonology: Uses jargon in babbling; can't discriminate 2 allophones; identifies function words in utterances
    (Content) Semantics: Understands rational actions as means to a goal; understands 5-10 words; says 1st word
    Example: " Ma ma" Melody laughs.
    (Use) Pragmatics: Uses imperative pointing; utters first true word
  • Toddler Milestone Description

    The toddler stage occurs from month 12-36 months of life. Within this stage, toddlers develop a small speech stream and syntactic development. Communication function and differentiated taxonomy become a part of a toddlers speech. Brown’s MLU stages become apparent. Toddlers display mostly intelligible speech by 36 months.
  • Toddler Milestones: 12 months

    (Form) Phonology: Mostly unintelligible speech
    (Form) Syntax and Morphology: 50% of all utterances consist of single nouns
    Example: "Dog" Melody points and laughs.
    (Content) Semantics: Speaks 1st word
    Example: " Da Da" Melody grins.
    (Use) Pragmatics: Uses referential gestures; uses body posture and voice direction infer other's actions
    Example: Melody points to cereal and shrieks when her mom brings out bowls and spoons from the cabinet.
  • Toddler Milestones: 16 months

    (Form) Phonology: Pronounces 25% of words intelligibly
    Ex: Melody can use familiar words such as "bowl" "mama" and "stick"
    (Form) Syntax and Morphology: MLU 1.31; 33% of utterances single nouns, Brown's stage 1
    Ex: Melody awakens her mom in the morning by saying "eat! eat!"
    (Content) Semantics: Uses between 3 and 20 words
    (Use) Pragmatics: Uses verbal turn taking
    Ex: Melody uses imaginary play with her mom&states "mommy turn" as she hands her a ball.
  • Toddler Milestones: 20 months

    (Form) Phonology: Processes spoken words incrementally
    Example: Melody picks up her toys after being asked
    (Form) Syntax and Morphology: MLU 1.62; begins to grammatical morphemes
    Example: "want ball!" Melody screams.
    (Content) Semantics: Produces 50 words; uses verbs and adjectives
    Example: "dress pretty!" Melody expresses.
    (Use) Pragmatics: Uses gestures word combinations; uses 2 gesture combinations
    Example: "block fall!" Melody exclaims as she points at the blocks fall off of the bed.
  • Toddler Milestones: 24 Months

    (Form) Phonology: Asks questions with rising intonation
    (Form) Syntax & Morphology: Uses prepositions "in" and "on"
    Example: Melody states "doggy in there" after visiting the dog park for the first time.
    (Content) Semantics: Produces about 200 words
    (Use) Pragmatics: Begins to use imaginative. heuristic & informative language function
    Example: Melody often asks "Mommy this mine"
  • Toddler Milestones: 28 Months

    (Form) Phonology: Demonstrates phonological process
    Example: Melody exclaims "mommy look dat bird!" while driving in the car.
    (Form) Syntax & Morphology: Brown's stage 3
    Example: Melody asks "Why she crying?" after seeing a baby at the mall.
    (Content) Semantics: Overgeneralizes about 1/3 of all new words
    Example: While in the car, Melody point at a tall government building and shouts "Mommy that my school!"
    (Use) Pragmatics: Engages in short dialogues
  • Toddler Milestones: 32-36 Months

    (Form) Phonology: Pronounces 80% of all words intelligibly
    Ex: " School was fun and (unintelligible)!" Melody exclaims
    (Form) Syntax & Morphology: Uses some contractions; MLU of 2.85-3.16
    Ex: " I don't like apples!" Melody screams in the grocery store.
    (Content) Semantics: Asks simple questions; produces 500 words
    Ex: Melody asks, "Where is mommy?"
    (Use) Pragmatics: Clarifies and requests clarification during conversation
    Ex: " What does lying mean? Melody questions as mommy reads her a book.
  • Preschool Milestone Description

    Preschool ages occur from 36-60 months of age. Within this time frame, language develops rapidly. Consonants and vowels are intelligible in the speech stream. Preschoolers know the letters of the alphabet for the most part. Sentences turn into paragraphs as well as plurals and third person. Nearly 3,000 words are known by the time a child reaches kindergarten. Dialogues, requests and narratives become familiar.
  • Preschool Milestones: 36 months

    (Form) Phonology: Begins to develop shallow phonological awareness abilities
    (Form) Syntax & Morphology: uses 4-5 words in a sentence
    Ex: “mommy I want that!” Melody exclaims as she point at candy.
    (Content) Semantics: uses pronouns such as “them” “they” & “us”
    Ex: “why is she laughing” as she passes by a girl in the grocery store.
    (Use) Pragmatics: begins to engage in longer dialogues.
  • Preschool Milestones: 40 months

    (Form) Phonology: Continues to refine articulatory skills
    Ex: “”I want that one” melody states in a clear manner.
    (Form) Syntax and Morphology: uses adverbs of time
    Ex: “when are we going home?” Melody asks in the middle of the park.
    (Content) Semantics: understands some rational terms
    Ex: “you are big and I am small” melody states to her teacher.
    (Use) Pragmatics: Begins to make conversational repairs
    Ex: “oh sorry, I meant this” melody apologizes while playing with her dolls.
  • Preschool Milestones: 44 months

    (Form) Phonology: Mastered most consonants
    (Form) Syntax and Morphology: Uses articles, past tense, and contractions
    Ex: the teacher sang songs! Melody exclaims.
    (Content) Semantics: Understands some kinship terms
    Ex: " My uncle loves to help me clean". Melody explains to her mother
    (Use) Pragmatics: Understands direct requests accompanied by nonverbal pointing
    Ex: " Mel, can you come pick up your mess?" Momma asks. Melody follows instruction
  • Preschool Milestones: 48 months

    (Form) Phonology: Decrease use of phonological processes
    (Form) Syntax and Morphology: Combines 4 to 7 words in sentences; uses irregular 3rd person verbs
    Ex: "She watches the class" Melody explains as she talks about her school-day.
    (Content) Semantics: uses reflexive pronouns
    Ex: "Look mom, I found this myself" as she brings in a worm inside.
    (Use) Pragmatics: Uses language functions; constructs true narratives
    Ex: "I painted a picture today" Melody states.
  • Preschool Milestones: 52 - 54 months

    (Form) Phonology: Very intelligible connected speech; mastered most consonants
    (Form) Syntax and Morphology: uses irregular plural forms
    Ex: "I have teeth and one is loose" melody exclaims at lunch time.
    (Content) Semantics: Uses WH questions w/ the words did, do and does
    Ex: "why do giraffes stay quiet?" Melody asks at the zoo.
    (Use) Pragmatics: Uses indirect requests
    Ex: Melody asks her classmates to be quiet at nap time.
  • Preschool Milestones: 56 to 60 months

    (Form) Phonology: Knows letters of name; has some persisting phonological processes; some difficulty with later developing sounds
    Ex: Melody spells out her name on the board at school.
    (Form) Syntax and Morphology: Combines 5 to 8 words in sentences
    (Content) Semantics: Uses 1,500-2,000 words; uses deictic terms
    (Use) Pragmatics: Uses narrative w/ order of events
    Ex;"When I first wake up I eat cereal." Melody explains.
  • Primary School Milestones: Ages 5-6

    (Form) Phonology: Can manipulate phonemes in words & blend & segment indiv. sounds
    (Form) Syntax & Morphology: Begins to use morphology to infer the meanings of new words
    Ex: " I think lake means a big pond" Melody states.
    (Content) Semantics: "learns to read" by decoding
    (Use) Pragmatics: Uses mostly direct requests
    Ex: "Can you pass me my pencil?" Melody asks her classmate
  • Primary School Description

    5-6 years old: Learning to read; may reverse letters and numbers; shows more independence; development of mental skills