Physical DevelopmentAt birth, infants cannot control their body movements. Most of their movements are reflexes. Their nervous system is not fully developed.
Weight at birthAt birth, infants weigh an average of 7.3 pounds at birth.
Length at birthAt birth, 95% of infants are between 5.5 and 10 pounds and are 18 to 22 inches in length.
Infancy and Childhood- Physical DevelopmentPhysical development refers to physical changes in the body and involves changes in bone thickness, size, weight, gross motor, fine motor, vision, hearing, and perceptual development.
SightDuring the first months, infants can see clearly objects that are about 10 inches away from their faces.
The first monthThe First Month:
Can lift head momentarily
Turns head from side to side when lying on back
Hands stay clenched
Strong grasp reflex present
Looks and follows object moving in front of them in range of 45 degrees
Sees black and white patterns
Quiets when a voice is heard
Cries to express displeasure
Makes throaty sounds
Looks intently at parents when they talk to him/her
The second monthThe Second Month:
Lifts head almost 45 degrees when lying on stomach
Head bobs forward when held in sitting position
Grasp reflex decreases
Follows dangling objects with eyes
Visually searches for sounds
Makes noises other than crying
Cries become distinctive (wet, hungry, etc.)
Vocalizes to familiar voices
Social smile demonstrated in response to various stimuli
The third monthBegins to bear partial weight on both legs when held in a standing position. Able to hold head up when sitting but still bobs forward. When lying on stomach can raise head and shoulders between 45 and 90 degrees. Bears weight on forearms. Squeals, coos, babbles, and chuckles
"Talks" when spoken to
Recognizes faces, voices, and objects
Smiles when he/she sees familiar people, and engages in play with them
Shows awareness to strange situations
Control over musclesBy four months, most babies have some control of their muscles and nervous system. They can sit with support, hold their head up for short periods of time, and can roll from their side to their stomach.
Rolling overBy five months, most babies can roll over.
The fourth monthDrooling begins Good head control Sits with support Bears some weight on legs when held upright Raises head and chest off surface to a 90 degree angle Rolls from back to side Explores and plays with hands Tries to reach for objects but overshoots Grasps objects with both hands Eye-hand coordination begins Makes consonant sounds Laughs Enjoys being rocked, bounced or swung
Vision fully developedBy six months, their vision is more fully developed.
Learning how to do things on ownSix to twelve months, infants still take a nap in the morning and afternoon. They start to eat and sleep at regular times. They eat three meals a day and drink from bottles at various times. They start using a cup and a spoon to feed themselves. Infants can sit alone. They crawl with their stomach touching the floor, and they creep on their hands and knees.
The fifth monthSigns of teething begin Holds head up when sitting Rolls from stomach to back When lying on back puts feet to mouth Voluntarily grasps and holds objects Plays with toes Takes objects directly to mouth Watches objects that are dropped Says "ah-goo" or similar vowel-consonant combinations Smiles at mirror image Gets upset if you take a toy away Can tell family and strangers apart Begins to discover parts of his/her body
The sixth monthChewing and biting occur. When on stomach can lift chest and part of stomach off the surface bearing weight on hands. Lifts head when pulled to a sitting position. Rolls from back to stomach. Bears majority of weight when being held in a standing position. Grasps and controls small objects. Holds bottle. Grabs feet and pulls to mouth. Adjusts body to see an object. Turns head from side to side and then looks up or down. Prefers more complex visual stimuli. Says one syllable sounds like "ma"
Holding onto objectsBy eight months, they can reach for and hold objects. They can pick up objects with their thumb and forefinger and let objects go (drop things). They start to throw things. They pull up to stand, they stand holding onto furniture, and they can walk when led.
The seventh monthSits without support, may lean forward on both hands Bears full weight on feet Bounces when held in standing position Bears weight on one hand when lying on stomach Transfers objects from one hand to another Bangs objects on surfaces Able to fixate on small objects Responds to name Awareness of depth and space begin Has taste preferences "Talks" when others are talking
The eigth monthSits well without support Bears weight on legs and may stand holding on to furniture Adjusts posture to reach an object Picks up objects using index, fourth, and fifth finger against thumb Able to release objects Pulls string to obtain object Reaches for toys that are out of reach Listens selectively to familiar words Begins combining syllables like "mama" and "dada" but does not attach a meaning Understands the word no (but does not always obey it!)
The ninth monthBegins crawling
Pulls up to standing position from sitting
Sits for a prolonged time (10minutes)
May develop a preference for use of one hand
Uses thumb and index finger to pick up objects
Responds to simple verbal commands
Comprehends "no no"
Increased interest in pleasing parents
Puts arms in front of face to avoid having it washed
The tenth monthGoes from stomach to sitting position
Sits by falling down
Recovers balance easily while sitting
Lifts one foot to take a step while standing
Says "dada" or "mama" with meaning
Says one other word beside "mama" and "dada" (hi, bye, no, go)
Object permanence begins to develop
Repeats actions that attract attention
Plays interactive games such a "pat-a-cake"
Enjoys being read to and follows pictures in books
The eleventh monthWalks holding on to furniture or other objects Places one object after another into a container Reaches back to pick up an object when sitting Explores objects more thoroughly Able to manipulate objects out of tight fitting spaces Rolls a ball when asked Becomes excited when a task is mastered Acts frustrated when restricted Shakes head for "no"
Weight at end of first year and lengthBy the time they are 12 months old, most babies can weigh three times what they weighed at birth and gain about an inch per month in length. The average infant at one year may be between 26–30 inches long.
Weight at the end of first yearSome infants can weigh as much as 20 or 25 pounds by the end of the first year.
The first yearRecognizes objects by name
Understands simple verbal commands
Shows independence in familiar surrounding
Clings to parents in strange situation
Searches for object where it was last seen
Says three or more words other than "mama" or "dada"
Comprehends the meaning of several words
Repeats the same words over & over again