Childhoodgrowth and development of a childhood
3 monthsLifts and turns head, Stretches out arms and legs, Opens hands and swipes at things, Holds eye contact and studies faces, Smiles, Makes first sounds
- they tell their feelings by
cooing, gurgling, smiling, and crying.
-By 3 months of age, most babies can lift their heads higher than their bottoms.
4-6 months-Develops binocular vision, Accurately tracks moving objects and people, Reaches with both hands and can hold onto toys and people, Begins learning to sit Cries less, babbles more
6-7 months-From 6 to 7 months, two important skills (crawling and learning to pick up objects with the thumb and forefinger)
3-8 months3 to 8
-Babies play with sounds and they babble to
-They use sounds to communicate
-They can play peek-a-boo.
-They wave arms and kick feet to show excitement,
-studies have shown that they enjoy being read to.
6-9 months-a baby learns to change "ba-ba," a sound made with the lips, to "da-da," a sound made with the tongue.
-they also learn to guesture for wat they want
-babies start learning how to walk and "cruise" from one wall/peice of furniture to another.
Between 12 and 13 months-babies are ready to start learning how to walk
Responsive to own name.
Plays pat-a-cake, understands "no-no!"
Gives and takes objects.
1-1 1/2 years old-Obeys limited commands.
-Repeats a few words.
-Interested in his mirror image.
-Very upset when separated
-Fear of Bath
Motor Ability: creeps up stairs, walks (10-20 min), makes lines on paper with crayon. Dependent Behavior
1 1/2 - 2 years-Resentment of new baby
-Does opposite of what he is told (18 months).
-Temper tantrums (1-3 years)
-runs, kicks a ball, builds 6 cube tower (2yrs) Capable of bowel and bladder control.
-Language: vocabulary of more than 200 words
2-3 years old-Talks, uses "I" "me" "you"
-Copies parents' actions.
-Dependent, clinging, possessive about toys, enjoys playing alongside another child.
-Negativism (2 ½ yrs).
-Resists parental demands.
-Rigid insistence on sameness of routine. Inability to make decisions.
-Violent emotions, anger
-Differentiates facial expressions of anger, sorrow, and joy.
-Sense of humor (Plays tricks)
-jumps off a step, rides a tricycle, uses crayons, builds a 9-10 cube tower.
3-4 years old-Likes to share, uses "we"
-Cooperative play with other children, nursery school. Imitates parents.
-Beginning of identification with same-sex parent, practices sex-role activities. Intense curiosity & interest in other children's bodies.
-Motor Ability: Stands on one leg, jumps up and down, draws a circle and a cross (4 yrs)
4-5 years-Prefers to play with other children, becomes competitive prefers sex-appropriate activities
-Responsibility and guilt
-Feels pride in accomplishment
-Motor ability: mature motor control, skips, broad jumps, dresses himself, copies a square and a triangle.
-Language: talks clearly, uses adult speech sounds, has mastered basic grammar, relates a story, knows over 2,000 words
6-8 years oldEmotional/Social Changes:
-More independence from parents and family.
-Stronger sense of right and wrong.
-Beginning awareness of the future.
-Growing understanding about one’s place in the world.
-More attention to friendships and teamwork.
-Growing desire to be liked and accepted by friends.
-Rapid development of mental skills.
-Greater ability to describe experiences and talk about thoughts and feelings.
-Less focus on one’s self and more concern for others.
9-11 years oldDuring this time, your child might:
-Form stronger, more complex friendships and peer relationships. It becomes more emotionally important to have friends, especially of the same sex.
Experience more peer pressure.
Become more independent from the family.
Become more aware of his or her body as puberty approaches. Body image and eating problems sometimes start around this age. For information on healthy eating and exercise for children and teenagers, visit http://kidshealth.org/parent/nutrition_
12-14 years old (Mental/Cognitive Changes) early adolscenceMental/Cognitive Changes:
-More ability for complex thought.
-Better able to express feelings through talking.
-A stronger sense of right and wrong.
-Many teens sometimes feel sad or depressed. Depression can lead to poor grades at school, alcohol or drug use, unsafe sex, and other problems. For more information on adolescent mental health, visit http://www.nimh.nih.gov/healthinformation/depchildmenu.cfm.
12-14 years old (Emotional/Social Changes) early adolscence-More concern about body image, looks, and clothes.
-Focus on self, going back and forth between high expectations and lack of confidence.
-More interest in and influence by peer group.
-Less affection shown toward parents. May sometimes seem rude or short-tempered.
-Anxiety from more challenging school work.
-Eating problems sometimes start at this age. For information on healthy eating and exercise for children and teenagers, visit http://kidshealth.org/teen/food_fitness/.
15-17 years old (Emotional/Social Changes) middle adolscenceEmotional/Social Changes:
-Increased interest in the opposite sex
-Decreased conflict with parents
-Increased independence from parents
-Deeper capacity for caring and sharing and the development of more intimate relationships
-Decreased time spent with parents and more time spent with peers
15-17 years old (Mental/Cognitive Changes) middle adolscenceMental/Cognitive Changes:
-More defined work habits
-More concern about future educational and vocational plans
-Greater ability to sense right and wrong
-Sadness or depression, which can lead to poor grades at school, alcohol or drug use, unsafe sex, thoughts of suicide, and other problems (Note: Problems at school, alcohol and drug use, and other disorders can also lead to feelings of sadness or hopelessness.)