History toast

Ancient Times

  • 3100 BCE

    Unification of lower Egypt and Upper Egypt by king Menes

    Unification of lower Egypt and Upper Egypt by king Menes
    Menes is the legendary first king of Egypt bye these conquist founded both: the First Dynasty and the great city of Memphis.
    Menes sent an army down the Nile and defeated the king of Lower Egypt in battle. In this way Menes united the two kingdoms. During the rule of Menes, the combined crown of Upper and Lower Egypt became the symbol of a unified Egypt, (white symbolic of Upper Egypt and red of Lower Egypt).Symbolizes the establishment and first dynasty in Egypt ,making Menes the 1st pharaoh.
  • Period: 3000 BCE to 2300 BCE

    Sumerian period

    Early Dynastic Period of Mesopotamia is the modern-day archaeological term for Mesopotamian history.
    Some of the most significant cultural advances were:
    The rise of the cities:moved into the fertile land and began to form small villages which slowly grew into large towns.

    The development of writing:cuneiform script, created in Mesopotamia, present-day Iraq, ca. 3200 BC,
    Establishment of governments:Monarchy: Mesopotamia Government.The king ruled cities in the name of gods they worshipped,
  • Period: 2700 BCE to 2200 BCE

    Old kingdom

    2700 BCE – 2200 BCE
    Old Kingdom(Egypt)
    In ancient Egyptian history, the Old Kingdom is the period spanning c. 2700–2200 BC. It is also known as the "Age of the Pyramids" or the "Age of the Pyramid Builders", as it encompasses the reigns of the great pyramid-builders of the Fourth Dynasty, such as King Sneferu, who perfected the art of pyramid- building, and the kings Khufu, Khafre and Menkaure, who constructed the pyramids at Giza.
  • Period: 2300 BCE to 1800 BCE

    Akkadian Empire

    the first multi-national political entity in the world, founded by Sargon the Great ( 2334-2279 BCE) who unified Mesopotamia under his rule and set the model for later Mesopotamian kings.
    It's believed that they invented the sailboat the chariot the wheel the plow maps and metallurgy.
    Akkadian was the most important language spoken and written in the ancient. Akkadian belongs to the Semitic language family and is related to Arabic and Hebrew.
  • Period: 2050 BCE to 1720 BCE

    Middle kingdom

    2050 BCE – 1720 BCE
    Middle Kingdom(Egypt)
    The Middle Kingdom is the period in the history of ancient Egypt stretching from the establishment of the Eleventh Dynasty to the end of the Fourteenth Dynasty, between 2050 BC and 1652 BC.
    The period comprises two phases, the Eleventh Dynasty, which ruled from Thebes, and the Twelfth Dynasty onwards, which was centered around el-Lisht.
    The Eleventh Dynasty of Ancient Egypt was a group of pharaohs, early members, grouped with the four preceding dynasties
  • Period: 1800 BCE to 1350 BCE

    Babylonian Empire

    What is Babylonian empire known for?
    Art and architecture flourished throughout the Babylonian Empire, especially in the capital city of Babylon, which is also famous for its impenetrable walls.
    Under the reign of Hammurabi, the town of Babylon began to flourish, and at its height, it was the largest city in the ancient world with a population of almost 200,000. The city was located on the banks of the Euphrates, and this strategic advantage gave it unique access to trading routes in the region.
  • 1750 BCE

    Code of Hammurabi

    Code of Hammurabi
    The Hammurabi code of laws, a collection of 282 rules, established standards for commercial interactions and set fines and punishments to meet the requirements of justice.
    One of the earliest and more complete written legal codes from ancient times. The codes have served as a model for establishing justice in other cultures and are believed to have influenced laws established by Hebrew scribes, including those in the Book of Exodus.
  • Period: 1550 BCE to 1069 BCE

    New kingdom

    1550 BCE – 1069 BCE
    New Kingdom(Egypt)
    Late in the Second Intermediate Period (ca. 1650–1550 B.C.), the Theban rulers (Dynasty 17) began to drive the Hyksos kings (Dynasty 15) from the Delta. This was finally accomplished by Ahmose I, who reunited Egypt, ushering in the New Kingdom—the third great era of Egyptian culture.
    Ahmose’s successors in Dynasty 18 conducted military campaigns that extended Egypt’s influence in the Near East and established
  • Period: 1350 BCE to 612 BCE

    Assyria Empire

    The Assyrians had several advantages that they had been developing for generations while other empires came and went. They were the first in the area to develop iron weapons, which were superior to the bronze weapons their enemies were using.
    The Assyrians are known for terrorizing their enemies as part of psychological warfare. Their army is known for its utter ruthlessness and brutal treatment of enemies.
  • Period: 753 BCE to 509 BCE


    Monarchy. The kings (excluding Romulus, who, according to legend, held office by virtue of being the city's founder), were all elected by the people of Rome to serve for life, with none of the kings relying on military force to gain or keep the throne.
    kings are said to have ruled Rome until 509 BC, when the last king was overthrown. These kings ruled for an average of 35 years
  • Period: 750 BCE to 500 BCE

    Archaic period

    Archaic period, in history and archaeology, the earliest phases of a culture; the term is most frequently used by art historians to denote the period of artistic development in Greece from about 650 to 480 bc, the date of the Persian sack of Athens. The Archaic period saw developments in Greek politics, economics, international relations, warfare, and culture. During this time, the Greek alphabet developed, and the earliest surviving Greek literature was composed.
  • Period: 715 BCE to 31 BCE

    Late period

    The Late Dynastic Period is the last period of Egyptian independence under Dynasties 28 to 30 (404 - 343 BCE). As for Egypt's position in the world, this was the time their military and diplomatic efforts focused on preventing reconquest by the Persian Empire
    The Late Period existed from 664 BC until 332 BC, following a period of foreign rule by the Nubian 25th Dynasty and beginning with a short period of Neo-Assyrian suzerainty, with Psamtik I initially ruling as their vassal.
  • Period: 612 BCE to 539 BCE

    Neo-Babylonian Empire

    The Neo-Babylonians are most famous for their architecture, notably at their capital city, Babylon. Nebuchadnezzar.
    Some of their accomplishments were Ishtar gate, talent with astronomy, and the Hanging Gardens of Babylon. Even today people have gated communities, gardens on rooftops and are skilled with astronomy.
    Many Judeans returned to Jerusalem after the Neo-Babylonian Empire fell to Cyrus the Great's Persian forces.
  • Period: 509 BCE to 27 BCE


    The Roman Republic describes the period in which the city-state of Rome existed as a republican government (from 509 B.C. to 27 B.C.), one of the earliest examples of representative democracy in the world.
    The Roman Republic was a democracy. Its government consisted of the Senate and four assemblies: the Comitia Curiata, the Comitia Centuriata, the Concilium Plebis, and the Comitia Tributa.
  • Period: 500 BCE to 323 BCE

    Classical period

    Overview. The Greeks made important contributions to philosophy, mathematics, astronomy, and medicine. Literature and theatre was an important aspect of Greek culture and influenced modern drama. The Greeks were known for their sophisticated sculpture and architecture.
    The Early Classical period is deemed to have begun after Athens' double defeat of the Persian invaders in 490 and 479 bc, but a new feeling of self-confidence was already in the air about 500
  • 490 BCE

    Battle of Maraton

    Battle of Maraton
    The Battle of Marathon was an armed confrontation that defined the outcome of the First Medical War. It happened in the year 490 a. C. and took place in the fields and the beach of the city of Marathon, located a few kilometers from Athens, on the east coast of Attica.
    The Battle of Marathon was fought because the Persian Army wanted to defeat the Greek city-states that supported the uprisings in Ionia, part of modern-day Turkey, against the Persian Empire.
  • 480 BCE

    Battle of Thermopiles

    Battle of Thermopiles
    After three days of holding their own against the Persian king Xerxes I and his vast southward-advancing army, the Greeks were betrayed, and the Persians were able to outflank them. Sending the main army in retreat, Leonidas and a small contingent remained behind to resist the advance and were defeated.
    A Persian army led by Xerxes I defeated Greek forces led by the Spartan king Leonidas in the Battle of Thermopylae.
  • 480 BCE

    Battle of Salamis

    Battle of Salamis
    The Battle of Salamis was a great victory for the Greek navy and, in combination with a victory by the Greek army at the Battle of Plataea the next year, led to the complete defeat of the Persians. Many historians cite the Battle of Salamis as one of the most important battles in human history.
    It proved to the Greek world that a democratic system could defeat an autocratic power and is widely regarded as the 'turning point' of the Persian War.
  • 432 BCE

    Construction of the Panthenon

    Construction of the Panthenon
    Built in the 5 century B.C., it was a symbol of the power, wealth and elevated culture of Athens. It was the largest and most lavish temple the Greek mainland had ever seen.symbol of Ancient Greece.
    Work on the Parthenon began in 447 bceunder the architects Ictinus and Callicrates with the supervision of the sculptor Phidias. The building was completed by 438, and that same year a great gold and ivory statue of Athena, made by Phidias for the interior, was dedicated.
  • Period: 323 BCE to 31 BCE

    Helenistic period

    The Hellenistic period was characterized by a new wave of Greek colonization which established Greek cities and kingdoms in Asia and Africa. This resulted in the export of Greek culture and language to these new realms, spanning as far as modern-day India
    The characteristics of the Hellenistic period include the division of Alexander's empire, the spread of Greek culture and language, and the flourishing of the arts, science and philosophy.
  • 202 BCE

    Battle of Zama

    Battle of Zama
    At the outset of the battle, Hannibal unleashed his elephants and skirmishers against the Roman troops in order to break the cohesion of their lines and exploit the breaches that could be opened. The attack was met by Roman skirmishers. In the first phase of the battle, Scipio largely neutralized the feared Carthaginian war elephants by using skirmishers to draw them into corridors between the densely packed heavy infantry, thus minimizing their impact on the battle.
  • Period: 110 BCE to 750 BCE

    Dark age

    The time period known as the Greek Dark Age began in 1200 BCE and lasted until 800 BCE at the start of the Archaic Period. This period of time is associated with archeological evidence such as graves and pottery, which showed a decline in the wealth, art, writing, and culture associated with Bronze Age civilizations.
  • 44 BCE

    Assassination of Julius Caesar

    Assassination of Julius Caesar
    According to Suetonius, Caesar's assassination ultimately occurred primarily due to concerns that he wished to crown himself the king of Rome. These concerns were exacerbated by the "three last straws" of 45 and 44 BC.
    Julius Caesar, dictator of Rome, is stabbed to death in the Roman Senate house by 60 conspirators led by Marcus Junius Brutus and Gaius Cassius Longinus on March 15.
  • 31 BCE

    Battle of Actium

    Battle of Actium
    Battle of Actium, (September 2, 31 bc), naval battle off a promontory in the north of Acarnania, on the western coast of Greece, where Octavian (known as the emperor Augustus after 27 bc), by his decisive victory over Mark Antony, became the undisputed master of the Roman world.
    leader Octavian
    At the Battle of Actium, off the western coast of Greece, Roman leader Octavian wins a decisive victory against the forces of Roman Mark Antony and Cleopatra, queen of Egypt.
  • Period: 27 BCE to 476


    A people known for their military, political, and social institutions, the ancient Romans conquered vast amounts of land in Europe and northern Africa, built roads and aqueducts, and spread Latin, their language, far and wide. Use these classroom resources to teach middle schoolers about the empire of ancient Rome.