Alyssa's Timeline

  • 100

    Rome AD- Agriculture

    Grain was harvested by hand until the first century A.D. At this time, a reaping machine called a vallusRoman Farmint was invented in Gaul (modern day France) which allowed for an easier harvest. The wheat would be beaten to separate the chaff (outer covering) from the kernels 100 AD.
  • 117

    Rome AD- Gender Roles

    Women were expected to look after the houses and very few had any real independence. 117 AD
  • 117

    Rome AD- Government

    The highest positions in the government were held by two consuls, or leaders, who ruled the Roman Republic. A senate composed of patricians elected these consuls.117 AD
  • 117

    Rome AD- Labor systems

    Besides manual labor, slaves performed many domestic services, and might be employed at highly skilled jobs and professions. Teachers, accountants, and physicians were often slaves. 117 AD
  • 117

    Rome AD- Trade

    Trade was vital to Ancient Rome. The empire cost a vast sum of money to run and trade brought in much of that money 117 AD
  • 146

    Rome BC- War

    The three Punic Wars between Carthage and Rome took place over nearly a century, beginning in 264 B.C. and ending with the destruction of Carthage in 146 B.C. By the time the First Punic War broke out, Rome had become the dominant power throughout the Italian peninsula.
  • 400

    Rome AD- Religion

    Some of these old beliefs changed when Christianity was made the official religion of the Roman Empire by the Emperor Constantine in the 4th century AD. Before then, Christians got into trouble because they refused to worship the emperor as a god.400 AD
  • 500

    China B.C- Education

    only the sons of wealthy families received formal education. Schooling began around the age of seven and largely prepared boys to be good citizens.500 BC
  • 500

    Greece B.C- Education

    only the sons of wealthy families received formal education. Schooling began around the age of seven and largely prepared boys to be good citizens.500 BC
  • 594

    China B.C- Industrialization

    More far-reaching democratic reforms were introduced by Solon who came to power in 594 B.C. Stating that no citizen should own another citizen, Solon outlawed debt slavery.
  • 594

    Greece B.C- Industrialization

    More far-reaching democratic reforms were introduced by Solon who came to power in 594 B.C. Stating that no citizen should own another citizen, Solon outlawed debt slavery.
  • Dec 5, 743

    Rome BC- Families

    Families were dominated by men. At the head of Roman family life was the oldest living male, called the "paterfamilias," or "father of the family." 743 BC
  • Dec 5, 753

    Rome B.C- Class Structures

    The social structure of ancient Rome was based on heredity, property, wealth, citizenship and freedom. It was also based around men: women were defined by the social status of their fathers or husbands. 753 BC
  • Dec 5, 753

    Rome BC- Nations

    Ancient Rome was founded by the two brothers, and demi-gods, Romulus and Remus, on 21 April 753. The legend claims that, in an argument over who would rule the city
  • Dec 5, 753

    Rome BC- Language

    The native language of the Romans was Latin, an Italic language the grammar of which relies little on word order, conveying meaning through a system of affixes attached to word stems. Its alphabet was based on the Etruscan alphabet, which was in turn based on the Greek alphabet 753 BC
  • Dec 5, 753

    Rome BC- Education

    Education was very important to the Ancient Romans. The rich people in Ancient Rome put a great deal of faith in education. 753 BC
  • Dec 5, 771

    China B.C- Revolts

    In 771 B.C., nomads from the north and west sacked the Zhou capital and murdered the Zhou monarch.A few members of the royal family escaped and set up a new capital at Luoyang.
  • Dec 5, 1027

    China B.C- Leadership

    Around 1027 B.C., a people called the Zhou (joh) overthrew the Shang and established their own dynasty. The Zhou had adopted much of the Shang culture.Therefore, the change in dynasty did not bring sweeping cultural change
  • Dec 5, 1100

    Greece B.C- Nations

    Mountains divided the land into a number of different regions. This significantly influenced Greek political life. Instead of a single government, the Greeks developed small, independent communities within each little valley and its surrounding mountains.
  • Dec 5, 1100

    China B.C- Climate

    Climate was the third important environmental influence on Greek civilization. Greece has a varied climate, with temperatures averaging 48 degrees Fahrenheit in the winter and 80 degrees Fahrenheit in the summer. 1100 BC
  • Dec 5, 1200

    Greece B.C- Freedom

    During the 1200s B.C., the Mycenaeans fought a ten-year war against Troy, an independent trading city located in Anatolia. According to legend, a Greek army besieged and des
  • Dec 5, 1200

    China B.C- Government

    During the 1200s B.C., the Mycenaeans fought a ten-year war against Troy, an independent trading city located in Anatolia. According to legend, a Greek army besieged and destroyed Troy because a Trojan prince had kidnapped Helen.
  • Dec 5, 1500

    China B.C- Writing

    The Mycenaeans adapted the Minoan writing sys-
    tem to the Greek language and decorated vases with Minoan designs.
  • Dec 5, 1500

    China B.C- Beliefs/Ideologies

    The Minoan influenced culture of Mycenae formed the core of Greek religious practice, art, politics, and literature.
  • Dec 5, 1500

    China B.C- Wealth/ distribution

    Sometime after 1500 B.C., through either trade or war, the Mycenaeans came into contact with the Minoan civilization. From their contact with the Minoans, the Mycenaeans saw the value of seaborne trade
  • Dec 5, 1500

    Greece B.C- writing

    The Mycenaeans adapted the Minoan writing sys-
    tem to the Greek language and decorated vases with Minoan designs.1500 BC
  • Dec 5, 1500

    Greece B.C- Religion

    The Minoan influenced culture of Mycenae formed the core of Greek religious practice, art, politics, and literature.
  • Dec 1, 1523

    Egypt B.C- Natural Barriers

    Nile would flood, causing floodwaters to be just a few feet lower than normal, the amount of fresh silt and water for crops was greatly reduced. vast and forbidding deserts on either side of the Nile acted as natural barriers between Egypt and other lands. They forced Egyptians to live on a very small portion of the land and reduced interaction with other people
  • Dec 1, 1523

    Egypt B.C- Labor systems

    Egyptians used slaves to build the pyramids. Slaves were used to build more things.
  • Dec 5, 1523

    Egypt B.C- Regional

    Egyptian civilization turned out to be very different from the collection of city-states in Mesopotamia. Early on, Egypt was united into a single kingdom, which allowed it to enjoy a high degree of unity, stability, and cultural continuity over a period of 3,000 years
  • Dec 5, 1523

    Egypt B.C- Natural Resources

    In July, rains and melting snow from the mountains of east Africa caused the Nile River to rise and spill over its banks. Yearly flooding from the Nile brought the water and rich soil that allowed settlements to grow.
  • Dec 5, 1550

    Greece B.C- Wealth Distribution

    Sometime after 1500 B.C., through either trade or war, the Mycenaeans came into contact with the Minoan civilization. From their contact with the Minoans, the Mycenaeans saw the value of seaborne trade
  • China B.C- Trade

    As the Greeks became skilled sailors, sea travel connected Greece with other societies. Sea travel and trade were also important because Greece lacked natural resources, such as timber, precious metals, and usable farmland.
  • Greece B.C- Relations

    moderate temperatures supported an outdoor life for many Greek citizens. Men spent much of their leisure time at outdoor public events. They met often discuss public issues, exchange news, and take an active part in civic life.
  • Greece B.C- Freedom and Rights

    From Mycenae, a warrior-king ruled the surrounding villages and farms. Strong rulers controlled the areas around other Mycenaean cities, such as Tiryns and Athens. These kings dominated Greece.
  • China B.C- Settlement patterns

    In ancient times, Greece was not a united country. It was a collection of separate lands where Greek-speaking people lived. By 3000 B.C., the Minoans lived on the large Greek island of Crete. 1600 BC
  • Greece B.C- Trade

    As the Greeks became skilled sailors, sea travel connected Greece with other societies. Sea travel and trade were also important because Greece lacked natural resources, such as timber, precious metals, and usable farmland.1600 BC
  • Egypt B.C- Class Structure

    The king, queen, and royal family stood at the top, next was the upper class, which included wealthy landowners, government officials, priests, and army commanders, next was the middle class, which included merchants and artisans. At the base of the pyramid was the lower class, by far the largest class. It consisted of peasant farmers and laborers.
  • Egypt B.C- Writing

    the development of writing was one of the keys to the growth of Egyptian civilization. Early egyptians used pictographs form of writing in Egypt, but scribes quickly developed a new writing system called hieroglyphics.
  • Egypt B.C- Revolts

    In about 1640 B.C., a group from the area of Palestine, Hysksos, the rulers of foreign lands, moved into Egypt. The Hyksos ruled much of Egypt from 1630 to 1523 B.C.
  • Egypt B.C- Technology

    Egyptians made a calendar to help them keep track of the time between floods and to plan their planting season.They calculated the number of days between one rising of the star and the next as 365 days—a solar year.
  • Egypt B.C- Trade

    Strong pharaohs regained control during the Middle Kingdom in 2040–1640 B.C. they restored law and order. They improved trade and transportation by digging a canal from the Nile to the Red Sea.
  • Egypt B.C- Agriculture

    Egyptians built huge dikes to direct the Nile’s floodwaters for irrigation. They also created thousands of new acres of farmland by draining the swamps of Lower Egypt.
  • China B.C- Gender Roles

    Womenwere treated as inferiors. They were expected to obey their fathers, their husbands, and later, their own sons.
  • China B.C- War

    Shang peoples needed walled cities because they were constantly waging war. The chariot, one of the major tools of war, was probably first introduced by contact with cultures from western Asia.
  • Mesopotamia B.C- Freedom and Rights

    Hammurabi recognized that a single, uniform code of laws would help to unify the diverse groups within his empire. He collected existing rules, judgments, and laws into the Code of Hammurabi.
  • Mesopotamia B.C- Nations

    2000 B.C the nomadic warriors known was the Amorites invaded Mesopotamia and made their capital in Babylon, thus creating the Babylonian Empire. From 1792-1750 B.C the reign of Hammurabi made the empire at its strongest by creating a code of laws that made the empire thrive.
  • China B.C- Class Structure

    The higher classes lived in timber-framed houses with walls of clay and straw. These houses lay inside the city walls. The peasants and craftspeople lived in huts outside the city
  • China B.C- Family

    -The family was central to Chinese society. The most important virtue was respect for one’s parents
  • China B.C- Natural Barriers

    Natural barriers isolated ancient China. To China’s east lay the Yellow Sea, the East China Sea, and the Pacific Ocean, Mountain ranges and deserts dominate about two-thirds of China’s landmass, in west China lay the Taklimakan Desert and the icy 15,000-foot Plateau of Tibet, to the southwest are the Himalayas. And to the north are the desolate Gobi Desert and the Mongolian Plateau
  • China B.C- Natural Resources

    Because of China’s relative geographic isolation, early settlers had to supply their own goods rather than trading with outside peoples.
  • China B.C- Settlement Patterns

    Unlike the other three river valley civilizations, the civilization that began along one of China’s river systems continues to thrive today.China’s long history, its political boundaries have expanded and contracted depending on the strength or weakness of its ruling families. Yet the heartland of China remained the center of its civilization
  • Greece B.C- Revolts

    Mycenae was located in southern Greece on a steep, rocky ridge and surrounded by a protective wall more than 20 feet thick. The fortified city of Mycenae could withstand almost any attack.
  • China B.C- Migration

    a large wave of Indo-Europeans migrated from the Eurasian steppes to Europe, India, and Southwest Asia. Some of the people who settled on the Greek mainland around 2000 B.C. were later known as Mycenaeans.
  • Egypt B.C- Gender Roles

    Women in Egypt held many of the same rights as men. For example, a wealthy or middle-class woman could own and trade property and she could propose marriage or seek divorce. their freedom as a reward for their loyal service.
  • Egypt B.C- Social Mobility

    They could earna higher status in the social pyramid. Lower-and middle-class Egyptians could gain higher status through marriage or success in their jobs. Even some slaves could hope to earn their freedom as a reward for their loyal service.
  • Egypt B.C- Religion

    Early Egyptians were polytheistic. The most important gods were Re, the sun god, and Osiris, god of the dead.
  • Mesopotamia B.C- War

    2300 B.C a strong leader, Sargon and his army from Akkad, defeated Sumer. After defeating majority of the Mesopotamia region Sargon created the first empire that joined many other city-states of Sumer making their culture spread past the tigris and euphrates rivers.
  • Mesopotamis B.C- Writing

    2300 B.C the first official writing form was created, called cuneiform. It was written on clay tablets and consisted of maps, literature, and some of the oldest known documentation known to human civilization.
  • Mesopotamia B.C- Education

    Around the same time cuneiform was created the ancient Mesopotamian people created more education to learn, such as geometry and arithmetic. They knew geometry by building many different buildings and other shapes and developed a number system based off of the number 60
  • Mesopotamia B.C- Banking

    Around 2300 B.C, when cuneiform was created, banking and the use of documentation was created with it. The tablet was like a modern day receipt for the ancient people, thus creating a form of banking and currency.
  • Egypt B.C- Architecture

    Pharoahs were believed to reign even after they die. So pyramids were built to make them closer to the gods and for worship.
  • Mesopotamia B.C- Government

    Sumerians in 2350 B.C form of government was led by the temple priests, they were believed to be the closest to the gods. In the time of war priests appointed tough fighters to lead the armies, during war the army leaders became full time leaders and passed it down to their sons, thus creating dynasties
  • Mesopotamia B.C- Religion

    2500 B.C the religion of many of the Mesopotamian people they believed in polytheism, the belief in many gods. They believed that everything they did was in the control of certain gods and if the gods got unhappy with them they would punish them.
  • Mesopotamia B.C- Trade

    2500 B.C the first city-state, Sumer, was beginning to use long distance trade to get the essentials they needed to survive. New cities around began to surface which made the Sumerians share their culture, thus making cultural diffusion happen.
  • Indus Valley B.C- Class Structure

    A thick brick wall about three and a half miles long surrounded it. Inside was a citadel, which provided protection for the royal family and also served as a temple.
  • Indus Valley B.C- Urbanization

    Northern migrants may have made their way through the Khyber Pass in the Hindu Kush mountains. Archaeologists have found evidence in the highlands of agriculture and domesticated sheep and goats dating to about 7000 B.C.2500 BC
  • Indus Valley B.C- Social Mobility and Barriers

    Since the language has not been deciphered yet the social mobility is not officially known. historians know less about its origins and the reasons for its eventual decline than they do about the origins and decline of Mesopotamia and Egypt, 2500 BC
  • Indus Valley B.C- Government

    The uniformity in the cities’ planning and construction suggests that the Indus peoples had developed a strong central government.
  • Indus Valley .- Regional

    Historians know less about the civilization in the Indus Valley than about those to the west. They have not yet deciphered the Indus system of writing.
  • Indus Valley B.C- Nations

    The largest cities Kalibangan, Mohenjo-Daro, and Harappa. Indus Valley civilization is sometimes called Harappan civilization, because of the many archaeological discover-
    ies made at that site.
  • Indus Valley B.C- Natural Resources

    The world’s tallest mountains to the north and a large desert to the east helped protect the Indus Valley from invasion. The mountains guard an enormous flat and fertile plain formed by two rivers—the Indus and the Ganges.
  • Indus Valley B.C- Climate

    Seasonal winds called monsoons dominate India’s climate. From October to February, winter monsoons from the northeast blow dry air westward across the country. Then, from the middle of June through October, the winds shift. These monsoons blow eastward from the southwest, carrying moisture from the ocean in great rain clouds.
  • Indus Valley B.C- Natural Barriers

    Yearly floods spread deposits of rich soil over a wide area. However, the floods along the Indus were unpredictable. The rivers sometimes changed course and the cycle of wet and dry seasons brought by the monsoon winds was unpredictable.
  • Indus Valley B.C- Technology

    The strong walls worked for a while. When these were not enough, they constructed human-made islands to raise the cities above possible floodwaters.
  • Indus Valley B.C- Agriculture

    The Indus and Ganges and the lands they water make up a large area that stretches 1,700 miles across northern India and is called the Indo-Gangetic Plain. Like the Tigris, the Euphrates, and the Nile, these rivers carry not only water for irrigation, but also silt, which produces rich land for agriculture.
  • Indus Valley B.C- Industrialization

    Early engineers also created sophisticated plumbing and sewage systems. These systems could rival any urban drainage systems built before the 19th century.
  • Indus Valley B.C- Architecture

    Around 2500 B.C., while Egyptians were building pyramids, people in the Indus Valley were laying the bricks for India’s first cities. They built strong levees, or earthen walls, to keep water out of their cities.
  • Indus Valley B.C- Consumption/Use

    Archaeologists have found evidence in the highlands agriculture and domesticated sheep and goats dating to about 7000 B.C. By about 3200 B.C., people were farming in villages along the Indus River.
  • Indus Valley B.C- Education

    One of the most remarkable achievements of the Indus Valley people was their sophisticated city planning. The cities of the early Mesopotamians were a jumble of buildings connected by a maze of winding streets.
  • Egypt B.C- Government

    Egyptian god-kings, called pharaohs, were believed to be as splendid and powerful as the gods of the heavens. This type of government is the religious authority called a theocracy.
  • Mesopotamia B.C- Class Structure

    Through later 3000 B.C the highest people in their social class was kings, landholders, and some high priests, then merchants, then the vast majority of the Sumerian society was ranked next because they worked in fields or workshops, last came the slaves.
  • Mesopotamia B.C- Natural Barriers

    Without any natural barriers it left the village defenseless and vulnerable for any attack. To solve that problem they built mud walls around the village to keep any attackers out of their village.
  • Mesopotamia B.C- Gender Roles

    Throughout the Sumerian civilization during 3300 B.C woman had many rights such as the men and could work as merchants, farmers, or artisans.They could even hold property in their own names and even join the priesthood.
  • Mesopotamia B.C- Natural Resources

    The natural resources of Sumer were limited. Building materials and other necessary items were scarce. For defense, they built city walls with mud bricks.
  • Mesopotamia B.C- Technology

    Mesopotamia was advanced and became a vital object for the people of the time. One main resource they created was an irrigation system during droughts. They dug out irrigation ditches and brought water to their crops to make a surplus of them.
  • Mesopotamia B.C- Production

    The people of Mesopotamia used the rich silt from the floods to farm and produce the necessary crops to keep their village thriving. They used advanced irrigation system to water the crops and mainly produced wheat and barley.