A brief history of Italy
Period: 1500 BCE to
HISTORY OF ITALY
PREHISTORYIn Italy have been found evidence of settlements and tools of Paleolithic and Neolithic. During the late Bronze Age many civilisations developed like Terramaricoli (Emilia), the Ligurians and the Sards.
GREEKS AND ETRUSCANSGreeks established colonies in the Bay of Naples, southern coast and Sicily. This area was called Magna Graecia and dominated the trade in the Mediterranean. In the north of the Tiber an around the Arno there were the Etruscans. they became the most powerful population in central and northen Italy.
Period: 27 BCE to 476
THE ROMAN EMPIRELatin communities settled on the Palatine Hill and formed the first nucleus of Rome. The Roman Empire became a dominant power, invading much of Europe, Greece, Spain, parts of North Africa and Asia minor.
Invasions and civil wars began to weaken the Empire so the Emperor divided it into east and west. The Western Empire went into decline and in 476 the Germanic troops deposed the last emperor and named the first king of Italy.
Period: 500 to 1500
THE MIDDLE AGESIt was a period of invasions and domination between the conquerors and the popes. many central and northen Italian cities set up locals governments called "comuni" that had a degree of autonomy and became a series of city states.
Period: 1350 to 1550
THE RENAISSANCEThere was a prolifetation of intellectual and artistic ideas. Popes and wealthy families were patrons of art and they finenced projects from emerging artists. there was progress in the field of science, philosophy and literature. The Tuscan dialect became established.
FOREIGN RULEItaly was invaded by the French, the Spanish and the Austrians. Italy lost much of its importance and went into a economic decline. in 1796 Napoleon invaded Italy and for a brief period the north areas were annexed to France. In 1814 the Congress of Vienna divide Italy into ten states with most areas under foreign control.
UNIFICATIONGiuseppe Mazzini and Giuseppe Garibaldi played a central role in the movement to reform and unite the country (risorgimento). in 1860 Garibaldi conquered the Kingdom of Two Sicilies. on 17th March 1861 the Kingdom of Italy was officially proclaimed and ten years later Rome became the capital.