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20th Century Russia

  • Creation of the Communist Party

    Creation of the Communist Party
    The founder of the Communist Party was Vladimir Lenin. It led to the 1917 October Revolution and established the world's first socialist state. The creation of the Communist Party also led to the emergence of communism in other states/countries.
  • Russian Revolution

    Russian Revolution
    The Russian Revolution refers to a series of revolutions in Russia in 1917. The first revolution destroyed the Tsarist autocracy and led to the creation of the Soviet Union. The series of revolutions resulted in the end of the Russian Empire, Bolshevik's takeover of power, and the start of the Russian Civil War.
  • Bolshevik Revolution

    Also known as the October Revolution, it overthrew the Russian Provisional Government and replaced the government with a Bolshevik (communist) government. It gave the power to the local soviets dominated by the Bolsheviks. The revolution also led to the Russian Civil War and the establishment of the Soviet Union.
  • Lenin's New Economic Policy

    Lenin's New Economic Policy
    Vladimir Lenin proposed this economic policy, which allowed small businesses to reopen for private profit while the state continued to control large industries, banks, and foreign trade. It also required the farmers to give the government a certain amount of agriculutral products as a tax. He taxed people at a lower level and allowed the farmers to keep the rest of what they produced. This policy resulted in famine, high agricultural production, and unemployment in the heavy industry sector.
  • Establishment of the USSR

    Establishment of the USSR
    (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics)
    Also known as the Soviet Union, the new communist state was comprised of Russia, Belorussia, Ukraine, and the Transcaucasian Federation. This state was the successor to the Russian Empire and the first country in the world to be based on Marxist socialism.
  • Stalin's Five Year Plan

    Stalin's Five Year Plan
    Stalin's first five year plan was a list of economic goals that was designed to strengthen the country's economy. This brought all industry under state control and all industrial development was planned by the state. While the plan encouraged industrialization, it damaged Soviet agriculture to such an extent that it didn't recover until after the Second World War. In addition, famine broke out in several districts.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis

    Cuban Missile Crisis
    The Cuban Missile Crisis was a confrontation between the Soviet Union and Cuba versus the United States. It led to the agreement between the Soviet Union and the United States that the United States would never invade Cuba. It also led to the creation of a nuclear hotline between Washington and Moscow, and withdrawl of the Soviet Union's nuclear missiles in Cuba and the United State's nuclear missiles in Turkey.
  • Glasnost/Perestroika

    "Perestroika" (restructuring) refers to the reconstruction of the political and economic system established by the Communist party. It resulted in the government losing its control over the media and economic conditions, and government spending increased dramatically.
  • End of Communist Party

    End of Communist Party
    The Revolution fo 1989 resulted in the end of communism and declared the end of the Cold War.
  • Russian Stock Market Crash

    Russian Stock Market Crash
    The Russian stock market crash resulted in the Russian government devaluing their currency and defaulting on its debt. However, the country quickly bounced back after the rise of the world's oil prices.
  • Democracy of Russia Implemented

    Democracy of Russia Implemented
    Russia's transition to democracy has proved to be a challenge. The future of Russian democracy is an important issue in U.S.-Russia relations today; if Russia develops a strong and liberal democracy, there will be fewer conflicts between them and the United States.