19th-Century Russia

By im@11ie
  • Period: Apr 22, 1400 to

    Re-emergence of serfdom in Eastern Europe

  • Period: Jan 19, 1462 to Jan 19, 1505

    Reign of Ivan III in Russia

    Russian ruler who largely completed the process of gaining territories around Moscow and forming the beginnings of Russia.
  • Jan 1, 1480

    Russia Frees Itself from Khan Dominion

    Ivan III stops acknowledging the khans as his supreme ruler.
  • Period: Apr 22, 1533 to

    Ivan IV's (Ivan the Terrible) reign

    Ivan the Terrible ruled Russia through this period, starting to rule at just the age of three. He finished off most of the Mongols remaining in Russia, icluding the Kazan and Astrakhan khanates. Ivan IV then centralized the governmment under the Tsar, creating an absolutist state.
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    Thirty Years War

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    Age of Enlightenment

    18th century culutral movement in Europe that resulted in great advances in science, art, and phisolophical thought.
  • Period: to

    Cossack Revolt

    Lead by Razin he Cossacks revolted against the Tsar. The revolt ended up being crushed, but Razin became the equivalent of Robin Hood in Russian folk lore.
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    Reign of Peter the Great

    Reformed the Russian military and westernized the Russian society throughout his reign, ruling as an enlightened monarch and bringing Russia onto the world stage as a world power.
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    Life of Baron de Montesquieu

    French political thinker
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    Life of Voltaire

    French philosopher, writer, playwright, and deist, famous for his wit and criticism
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    Life of Rousseau

    French philosopher, writer, and educator
  • Russian capital moved from Moscow to Saint Petersburg

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    Life of Diderot

    founder of the Encyclopedia
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    Industrial Revolution

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    Women's role in Industrial Society

    Women could now do the same jobs their husbands could, but were still paid significantly less.
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    Reign of Catherine the Great

    Catherine the Great was an enlightened monarch who brought on great reform and change in the mainly backward world of Russia. She abolished serfdom, but did NOT stop nobles from continuing to use serfs.
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    French Revolution

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    Reign of Alexander I

    ruled throughout the Napoleonic Wars
    new universities and secondary schools opened
    scientific, literary, and scholarly societies flourished
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    Reign of Nicholas I

    third Section oversaw tight censorship and repression
    liberal ideas began to spread
  • Pyotr Chaadayev's "Philosophical Letters"

    condemned Russia's cultural history
    provoked heated discussion because it suggested that cultural backwardness would keep Russia from becoming civilized
  • Fyodor Dostoyevsky's Death Sentence

    sentenced for participation in reading circle that discussed socialism
    mock execution that scarred him and motivated him to describe not only his own suffering but that of Russia, esp. after the Crimean War
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    Crimean War

    Russian defeat, helped convince the tsar that reform and the emancipation of serfs was necessary for the development of the country
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    Reign of Alexander II

    emancipated serfs
    liberal (courts, no flogging, new military policy) but conservative (censorship and secret court-martial, no intention of creating national representative assembly)
    expansionist goals
  • Peace of Paris

    result of Crimean defeat
    Russia lost large territories and accepted neutrality of Black Sea
  • Emancipation of Serfs

    Tsar Alexander II, most ambitious reform of the century
    22 million serfs
    sefdom dictated organization of taxation, army, courts, etc; Russia can only develop economically if abolished
    serfs received lands through mir (former Russian peasant community) but insufficient enough for them to grow enough to eat/pay taxes and redemption fees
    freed without bloodshed because of centralized authority
  • Polish Rebellion

    proclaimed a national government but was crushed by Russian troops
    brutal repression brought widespread sympathy but not victory
  • Nikolay Cherneyshevsky's "What Is to Be Done?"

    former seminarian
    supporter of nihilism: Russian movement in the 1860s which rejected all authorities.
    derived from the Latin word "nihil", "nothing"
    After the assassination of Tsar Alexander II in 1881, the Nihilists were known throughout Europe as proponents of the use of violence in order to bring about political change.
  • Establishment of zemstvos

    Alexander II
    district of village assemblies that would elect delegates to regional assemblies
    dumas (councils) had authority to assess taxes and organize public services
  • Establishment of Courts

    first time separate judicial branch of government existed
    regional and lower courts modeled after britain, public trial by jury
    tsar could override any decision
  • Fyodor Dostoyevsky's "Crime and Punishment"

    wrote novels using characters that depicted ot rationality but aberration and madness
    "The Brothers Karamazov" (1879-1880)
  • Alexander II Assassination Attempt

    student nihilist
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    Reign of Nicholas II

    approved the Russian mobilization of August 1914 (started involvement in WWI)
    Incompetent, family under influence of Rasputin
    Not popular with general public
    Abdicated following February Revolution
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    Dostoyevsky's "The Possessed"

    main character based on Nechayav, supporter of an autocracy (unlike nihilists and anarchists)
    small, tightly organized revolutionary group could seize control of the state and begin the peasant revolution that would sweep away autocratic oppression and corruption
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    Russo-Turkish War

    Austrian and British forces protected Dardanelles Strait
    Russia defeated the Ottoman Empire, which led to the Treaty of San Stefano
    threatened Britain and Austria-Hungary because of assertive victory and rise of Pan-Slavism, so they demanded assembly to discuss the matter
    compromise leaves both Russians and Bulgarians feeling cheated of lands
  • Assassination of Alexander II

    bombing by "People's Will"
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    Reign of Alexander III

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    Russo-Japanese War

    Russians lost to Japanese
    War over Manchuria and Korea
    Russia wanted warm water ports, thought it would easily beat and Asian country
    They lost.
    Russia had to give up all influence in the Far East, everyone was angry at Tsar Nicholas II
  • Revolution of 1905 (Bloody Sunday)

    strike by 100 000 workers led by Orthodox priest to tsar's Winter palace, carrying petition for justice and political reform
    Sunday Bloody Sunday
    Tsar is no longer Holy Father
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    World War I

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    World War I women policy

    Due to a massive loss of men from businesses, women began to be allowed more and more freedom to pick up the jobs the men left behind.
  • Capital moved from Saint Petersburg to Petrograd

  • February Revolution

    1st Bolshevik Revolution. Bolsheviks brutally crushed by Mensheviks and cou d' etat fails.
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    Russian Provisional Government

    Provisional took the reigns of government after the previous Russian emperor Nicholas II abdicated. They took the place of the Duma and reigned until the Bolsheviks overthrew them on Nov 7. The Bolsheviks set up their own provisional government consisting of only communists and soviets and began their long reign over Russia.
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    Lenin's policy on Women

    Women given many rights due to Lenin believing that it was necessary for women to participate in order for the revolution to be a success.
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    Russian Civil War

    Civil War between the Red army (Bolsheviks) and the White Army (Mencheviks, moderates, and conservatives). Ended with Lenin's Red Army victorious due to the White Army fighting amongst itself.
  • October Revolution

    2nd Bolshevik Revolution. This time the Bolsheviks successfully perform their cou d' etat and overthrew the provisional government.
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    Reign of Lenin

    leader of the Bolshevik party and October Revolution
    first leader of the USSR
    Russian Marxist
    signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
    brought in the New Economic Policy
  • Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

    Treaty between the Central Powers and Russia marking Russia's exit from World War I.
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    Reign of Stalin

    totalitarian, used secret police
    instituted collectivization
    cooperated with Hitler in WWII until 1941 when Hitler turned on him
    reign followed by a period of de-Stalinization, then re-stalinization
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    Stalin's policy on women

    Stalin cut back on the policy Lenin had established. Due to this, women's rights regressed back to where they were before Lenin's reign.
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    World War II

  • Atlantic Charter

    Stated that the United States and its Allies would adhere to the following laws: no territorial aggrandizement, no territorial changes made against the wishes of the people, restoration of self-government to those deprived of it, free access to raw materials; reduction of trade restrictions, global cooperation to secure better economic and social conditions for all, freedom from fear and want, freedom of the seas, and abandonment of the use of force, as well as disarmament of aggressor nations.
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    Cold War

  • Churchill delivers Iron Curtain speech at Westminster College

    This speech served as a warnign to the tensions building between the U.S. and the Soviet Union. Their refusal to trade or interact with each other formed the basis of the Iron Curtain theory.
  • Soviet dominance in Eastern Europe solidified

    THe Soviets managed to halt free elections and instead forcefully install communist dictatorships into the countries of Eastern Europe.
  • Formation of NATO

    NATO was formed by the nations of Western Europe and America to unite them against the Soviet Union
  • Death of Stalin

  • Nikita Khrushchev replaces Stalin

    In his 'Secret Speech' Khrushchev proposed a beginning to the de-stalinization of Russia. He planned to better the lives of the ordinary people and bring out more freedom in soicety.
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    Nikita Khrushchev is First Secretary of Soviet Union

  • Establishment of the Warsaw Pact

    This pact was made by the eight communist nations of Eastern Europe to counter the combined might of NATO forces and resources
  • Soviets send in troops to put down Hungarian Uprising

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    Breshnev's reign

    Breshnev increased the Soviet Union's influence on the global scale, but overlooked economic problems that would eventually aid in the downfall of the Soviet Union.
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    Gorbachev's reign

    Gorbachev's reforms and policies helped dissolve the Soviet Union and bring about an end to the Cold War.
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    Russian Federation reign

    Russia lacked much of its former military power and had deactivated the majority of its nuclear weapons. The Russian Federation was a republic and the entire country went through a wave of reforms, including the free-market orientation reform.