The Byzantine Empire

  • Period: 300 to 400

    Time period generally regarded as the beginning of the Byzantine Empire

  • Period: 324 to 337

    Constantine I's reign as Monokrator

  • 325

    Council of Nicaea

    First council of the Catholic church declares Arius and Arianism to be heretical.
  • 330

    Constantine I moves the Roman capital to Byzantium; renames it to New Rome

    Byzantium was an ancient Greek city. It later became known as Constantinople
  • Period: 474 to

    Emperor Zeno's Rule

    During his reign, he dealt with an attempted coup, the Vandals, the takeover of the Western Roman Empire at the hands of Odoacer, the Monophysite-Orthodox conflict, and the Ostrogoths under King Theodoric the Great.
  • Period: 527 to 565

    Justinian I's Reign

    Ruled the Byzantine Empire at its peak, conquered the former Western Roman Empire, rebuilt Constantinople following a major and destructive rebellion, and codified law. Additionally, he built the Hagia Sophia.
    After his death, less competent rulers replaced him, sending the Byzantine Empire into a long period of decline.
  • 532

    Nika Revolt

    Two leaders of opposing factions are arrested, sparking a major revolt in Constantinople. Justinian I is nearly driven out, but his wife, Theodora, convinced him to stay. Large portions of the city were damaged or destroyed.
  • Period: Mar 22, 610 to

    Heraclius I's Reign

    Heraclius I seizes power of the Empire through a coup, reforming the government and allowing some level of decentralization.
    During this time period, the Persians, Avars, and Arabs conquered large portions of the empire.
  • Mar 22, 641

    Heraclius I dies of tuberculosis

  • Period: Mar 22, 1068 to Mar 22, 1071

    Romanus IV Diogenes Reigns

    The Empire loses large portions of Asia Minor to the Seljuk Turks at the Battle of Manzikert in 1071 while the Normans take Bari, the last Byzantine holding ont the Italian Peninsula. These losses were compounded by the Battle of Myriocephalum between the Turks and the Byzantines, who lost half of their army as the result of poor discipline and communication.
  • Mar 22, 1081

    The Seljuk Turks take over Nicaea; establish the Sultanate of Rum

  • Mar 22, 1082

    Commercial privileges granted to Venice in exchange for military support against the Normans.

    *Venitians don't have to pay any taxes. Despite the aid, the Normans take control of the Mediterranean trade routes, limiting the Byzantine Empire's resources.
  • Mar 22, 1095

    Alexius I Comnenus appeals to Pope Urban II for military aid against the Turks, sparking the First Crusade

  • Period: Mar 22, 1096 to Mar 22, 1099

    First Crusade against the Turks occurs

  • Mar 22, 1097

    Nicaea is retaken by the Byzantine Empire

  • Mar 22, 1159

    Emperor Manuel I Comnenus of the Byzantines retakes Antioch from the Normans

  • Period: Mar 22, 1202 to Mar 22, 1204

    The Fourth Crusade

    Although intended to conquer the Muslim-controlled Holy Lands, the crusaders quickly turned on the Byzantines after they failed to make payments to the Venitians. Alexus IV attempted to reestablish his father Isaac II Angelus's rule in exchange for money.
  • Period: Mar 22, 1300 to Mar 22, 1350

    Early 1300s: Byzantine loses significant territory

    *Bithynia is lost in northwestern Asia Minor
    *Portions of Greece are taken by the Serbs, a former part of the Byzantine Empire that broke off previously
    *In all, half of the Byzantine Empire is eventually controlled by the Serbs.
  • Period: Mar 22, 1341 to Mar 22, 1354

    Civil War and Coups

    A large-scale civil war and a series of coups weaken the Empire, despite it being surrounded by enemies.
  • Period: Mar 22, 1354 to Mar 22, 1390

    The Turkish Ottoman Empire conquers all of the Byzantine landholdings in Asia Minor

  • Mar 22, 1396

    The Crusade of Nocopolis attempts to drive out the Turks, fails

    It was a joint Balkan-Western-European effort, but it failed.
  • Mar 22, 1402

    The Ottomans are defeated by the Mongols at the Battle of Ankara

    This provided a brief respite from the Empire's constant losses, allowing its survival for another 51 years.
  • Period: Mar 22, 1438 to Mar 22, 1439

    Council of Ferrara-Florence attempts to repair relations between the Orthodox and Latin Catholic Churches

    This fails, further dividing the Byzantine Empire while also cutting it off from potential allies.
  • Mar 22, 1443

    Pope Eugenius IV organizes a massive crusade against the Turks

    250,000 Hungarians, Serbs, and Vlachs (Latin people in central and eastern Europe) were involved
  • Nov 22, 1444

    The crusaders attempt to retake Varna, but fail

  • Mar 22, 1448

    Constantine XI Palaeologus takes the throne

    He is the last emperor before its collapse at the hands of the Ottomans.
  • May 29, 1453

    Constantinople is taken by the Turkish Empire

    Due to a lack of rapid reinforcements, and a lack of reinforcments overall, the Byzantine Empire is able to be taken by the Ottomans, ending the Roman reign in Europe.
  • Roman Emperor Theodosius I dies, the Roman Empire splits

    The Roman Empire splits into the East and West Roman Empire
  • Heraclius I publishes the Exposition of Faith

    It was published in attempt to merge the Monophysite beliefs of the Syrians with the Orthodox Church. This failed when the pope rejected the change to the doctrine and the Arabs conquered Syria. As a result of the publishing of this document, Heraclius lost the support of the church while gaining nothing.