By Unit 5 Group
Alexander The Great's RuleAfter his reigning dominance against other kings and countries, Alexander the Great arrives in Egypt. When he arrived, the country of Egypt was in the rule of the Persian empire. He was met with little resistance, but he was also met with welcome from the citizens. He then founded an entire working city in his own name-Alexandria. His rule of Egypt came to an end when he passed away in the year 323 BCE. His rule was significant due to his influence on the government and the empire as a whole.
Greek culture infuses with indigenous peopleAround the year 323 BCE, The culture of Greece had infused with the indigenous parts of Northeast Africa, most particularly Egypt, along with the parts surrounding it. The language was also affected with the culture spread, with Egypt’s population being able to speak and write both Greek and Egyptian Coptic. The culture that Greece brought into the land has come to affect this part of Africa more than we think, from language to art to architecture.
Kingdom of Kush's DeclineThe kingdom of Kush had fallen because of invaders, but it was already declining around 300 BCE. Their resources were steadily being depleted due to massive amounts of deforestation. They were invaded by the Axumites around 330 BCE and lasted 20 more years before collapsing. In 350 BCE the kingdom of Kush fell. This changed Africa a lot, as it was one of the greatest kingdoms of that time and was known for being plentiful in resources such as gold and iron.
Carthage's DestructionThe city of Carthage was destroyed by the Romans in the third Punic war in 146 BCE. Carthage was a powerful part of Africa at the time, and this fall enabled the Romans to expand further into Africa. The region (specifically the coast area) would go on to be entirely controlled by the Romans. This would ultimately impact Africa as they continued to expand, feeding their empire and affecting regions such as Libya. The expansion of the Roman Empire would affect Africa’s culture in various ways.
Coptic Egypt and ChristianitySaint Mark brought the religion of Christianity into the land of Egypt around the year 12 CE, and his teachings that came with him became the foundation for the Coptic Church. It took half a century for the religion of Christianity to spread throughout the land of Egypt. The religion of Christianity would spread throughout the country of Africa, and it would bring a big change to religion in the region. The Coptic Church still remains to this day.
Persecution of ChristianityUnfortunately, The Christians located in Egypt were being persecuted and were being treated unfairly around 200 CE. Because of the reigning dominance of the Roman Empire, the cult for the emperor was very prominent. Unlike the Jews, Christians were not exempt from joining the cult of the emperor. As more emperors came along throughout the years, persecution became heavier. The persecution of the christians remained heavy until around after 300 CE.
Christian Nubian KingdomsNubia consisted of the three kingdoms of Noubadia, Makuria, and Alwa when Byzantine missionaries converted it to Christianity just before 600 AD. The conversion brought great social change and introduced a new set of symbols for art and architecture. In 651 Christian Nubia and Muslim Egypt negotiated a peace treaty called the Baqt (pact) that was also a trade agreement. The Baqt regulated trade relations between Christian Nubia and Islamic Egypt for almost 600 years.
Byzantine Empire Controls EgyptThis event happened in 30 BC when the Romans took over Egypt. They ruled for 600 years until 640 AD. This happened around the Mediterranean sea. This event is significant because it’s one of the most oppressive times that humans had to go through. The main language from the Byzantine Empire was Greek. Egypt had to speak this language too. Their control went farther than language. Rome's control impacted the governmental systems and how the people would behave in society.
Arab Conquest of EgyptThe Arab Conquest of Egypt took place between 639-646 AD. This event took place beginning in Saudi Arabia. In the conquest, the Arab and Byzantine Empire wanted to go to war. This was because of the religious tension between them. Since the Byzantine Empire was in power over the Arabs they won in their religious opinion. This caused persecution and violence against the Arabs. And this became one of the most violent events. A lot of the men, women, and children were unfortunately slaughtered.
Saladin Takes Over EgyptSaladin is the Western name of Salah al-Din Yusuf ibn Ayyub, the Muslim sultan of Egypt and Syria who famously defeated a massive army of Crusaders in the Battle of Hattin and captured the city of Jerusalem in 1187. At the height of his power, he ruled a unified Muslim region stretching from Egypt to Arabia. Saladin was celebrated by Muslims and many Westerners of later generations for his political and military skills, as well as his generosity and chivalry