The rights of Englishmen were first written in the Magna Carta (great charter).
Dec 9, 1497
John Cabot set out from England with a crew of 18 men. They were searching for Asia by boat.
Dec 9, 1498
Cabot sailed west from England, hoping to reach Japan, but was never seen again.
Dec 9, 1500
Tension between Catholics and Protestants began in France.
Period: Dec 9, 1500 to
The proud English continued to defeat the Spanish. The Queen was a strong defender of the Protastent faith,
Period: Dec 9, 1500 to
Religious wars swept through Holland, France, and Germany and spilled into America.
Period: Dec 10, 1500 to Dec 10, 1530
African American slave trade was part of the Atlantic world. They were used for farm labor.
Dec 9, 1517
October 31, 1517, Johann Tetzel began selling 'forgiveness' from sins at the Christian church.
Dec 9, 1517
The debate over buying forgiveness started from the development of the printing press.
Dec 9, 1524
Verrazano came from Italy and sailed west to look for the northwest passage. He worked for France.
Dec 10, 1564
French colonists established Fort Caroline near what is now Jacksonville, FL.
Dec 9, 1578
Drake sailed through the Strait of Magellan and up the coast of Peru.
England's First Colony
England's first American colony, Roanoke Island, is made.
John White set sail with his daughter, son-in-law, and 100 man, women, and children.
In the summer of 1587, the colonists of Roanoke agreeded that White should return to England for supplies.
A Spanish Armada, in the summer of 1588, 130 ships, with 8,000 sailors, 19,000 soldiers, and hundreds of priests went to reconvert England to Catholocism.
White stayed in England to help defend his country from the Spanish.
No One Left
When White returned to Roanoke, no one was there. To this day, no one knows what happened.
Samuel de Champlain
Samuel de Champlain - a French captain - went from the mouth of the Saint Lawrence River to Southern Massachusetts, exploring the Atlantic coast.
Thousands of immigrants came in response to the labor demands of the tobacco farms.
There was only a small amount of African Americans in Virginia. The white and black servants worked together.
John Smith, a famed and experienced soldier and man of action talked to the king.
King James gave each company a charter to set up outposts in North America.
Three ships set sail with more than 100 men and boy volunteers, on an expedition to North America.
Virginia's population went up to 2500, raising tobacco sales.
The ships entered the calm waters of a huge bay: Chesapeake Bay.
New France began with Samuel Champlain's founding of Quebec.
Many of the men and boys were badly hurt from gunpowder explosions.
Death and Diseased
Most of the rest were sick or dead from eating mice/rat infested food. 60 out of the origanal 835 survived.
Two years after settlement in Jamestown, Separatists moved to the city of Lieden in Holland.
Henry Hudson (coming from Holland) tried to find a route to China.
20 Africans became servents.
The House of Burgesses makes laws for the colony.
The population in Virginnia went from 600 to 2000.
The Mayflower arrived off Cape Cod on Massachusetts' coast.
New England's population was at 500 in the beginning of the 1620s, but after people started fleeing from England, the population got much bigger.
Blessings of Good Harvest
Plymouth settlement celebrated Blessings of Good Harvest by holding a 3 day clebration.
African american, Anthony Johnson, was sold to Virginia's highest bidder and became an indentured servant.
New Amsterdam included African indentured servants.
Massachusetts Bay Company
The Massachusetts Bay Company had been given a royal charter to settle land in New England.
In March of 1630, 11 ships carrying 700 passengers, 240 cows, and 60 horses, arrived in New England. That more than doubled the population of New England.
Thousands of Puritan families came from England to America.
In the mid 1600s, two clusters of English Colonies were in New England and the lowlands around Chesapeake Bay.
Colonization Slow Down
English colonization nearly stopped as a result of war and turmoil in England.
Maryland was established by Lord Baltimore as a refuge for Catholics fleeing English prosecution.
Harvard College was founded in 1636.
Thomas Hooker, a minister, moved to Conneticut Valley after finding an abunduce of fertile land there.
Anne Hutchinson moved to Rhode (formorly called Rogue) Island for religious freedom.
All of the beavers in Hudson Valley were killed by trapping.
A civil war started when a Puritan rebellian rose up against Charles I.
William Berkeley (a cavalier) became the govenor of Virginia.
In May, a Dutch ship arrived in a New Amsterdam harbour, carring the new govenor - Peter Stuyvesant, a cranky, strong-willed man.
After defeating and beheading the king [Charles I], Puritans ruled England.
"Quakers", a Puritan group, challenged common wealth.
England's policy, Navigation Acts:
1. All shipping was to be in English ships or in ships made in the English colonies
2. Products such as tobacco, sugar, and cotton could be sold only to England or to another colony
3. All European imports to the colonies had to pass through England first
4. English tax officials are to collect duties (taxes) on any colonial goods not being shipped to England
Suspicious of all non-Christians, Stuyvesant barely allowed the arrival of 23 Jewish settlers.
Wanting to expand, New Netherland attacked New Sweden.
One out of every five people in New Amsterdam are African American.
Starting in 1660, it became harder for African Americans to gain freedom.
Changing Labor Systems
The labor systems began to change in the 1660s, and by 1700, there were few whitee servants on plantations.
English and Dutch
France became concerned about growing numbers of English and Dutch colonists.
Peter Stuyvesant was disgusted with New Amsterdam for surrendering without a fight.
Fewer than 500 people of African decent had been brought into the colonies.
La Salle became the first Frenchman to travel south. He took notes as the Seneca told him about their homeland.
The first settlers in between Virginia and Spanish Florida built Charlestown. It was for timber, cattle, and trading with Indians for deerskin.
Only six percent of southerners were black in the 1670s.
Export and Slavery
The southern colonies moved towards plantation agriculture and depended on growing crops for export and slavery.
In the late 1600s, New England began to change from it's Puritan ways. Most of New England was also centered around the church.
By 1670, Iroquois trappers were taking over one million pounds of beaver skins to the Albany trading post each year.
Many families moved to the backcountry to escape plantaion agriculture.
"The Great Water"
Indians were telling of a 'great water' that emptied into an even larger one. Missionary priest, Jaques Marquette, and fur trader Louis Jolliet, went searching for the truth.
Puritan colonies warred with New England Indians over land.
The fist major challenge to England's authority came from Virginia in 1676.
The king of France, Louis XIV, granted La Salle's request.
La Salle crossed the Great Lakes by boat.
In December of 1681, La Salle set off with 23 French colonists and 31 Indians, including ten women and three infants.
William Penn was granted a tract of land, in which he founded Pennsylvania.
La Salle set out from France to establish a hold on the Misssissippi Delta.
The king of France was persecuting French protestants (also known as Hugenots), and thousands were forced to leave France.
A group of La Salle's followers rebelled against him and they killed him just north of the Brazos River in Texas.
War Between Two
France began to war against the League of Six.
The king was planning to make England catholic again.
In Germantown, Pennsylvania, a group of Quakers used the Biblical golden rule to condemn slavery and slave trade: "There is a saying, that we shall do to all men like as we will be done ourselves; making no difference of what generation, decent, or color they are. And those who steal or rob men, and those who buy or purchase them, are they not all alike?"
English Bill of Rights
English Bill of Rights was a new bill passed by parliamnet. These were the rules:
1: No taxation without the consent of parliament
2: No cruel or injust punishment
3: Free speech in parliamnet
4: No imprisionment without a trial
5: The right to petition
6: The right to bear arms
7: The right to trial by jury
France and England went to war in the first of their struggles for world domination.
King William's War
The Iroquois defended the English frontier against France and their Indian allies.
The Crown forced a new charter on Massachusetts.
Cotton Mather helped cause a panic of 'witchcraft'. Hundreds of peole were killed because they were accused of witchcraft, and/or dealing with the devil.
In March 1697, 20 Indians attacked Haverhill, Massachusetts, killing men, women, children, infants, elders, and anyone else in their path. They took whoever didn't resist to be sold as slaves to France.
Women and Rights
It was more common for women to claim for themselves "the rights of Englishmen".
Colonial governments all followed a similar pattern, they were all ruled by governors.
Slavery was still strongly rooted in southern America.
The population of black in the south went up to more than twenty percent.
Ship building, fishing, and trade caused Boston to become the richest and largest of all the American colonial towns.
During the 1700s, piracy levels were beginning to gradually decline.
In the 1700s, there were three colonies: New England, Middle, and Southern.
All the languages that you could learn in Pennsylvania in the 1700s were: English, German, French, Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, Latin, Greek, Hebrew, and Arabic.
More space was found in the backcountry along and around the Appalachian Mountains in the 1700s.
A new group of people came to the backcountry from England. They were the Scots-Irish.
By 1700, the population of New France was 15,000. In 92 years, it had gained 15k.
Queen Anne's War
Queen Anne's War did not change the balance of power in North America.
England and Scotland merged to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain.
Royal visitors came to London, England from America in 1710. They were Mohawk Indians, but known as the "Four Kings".
When a storm pushed Christopher Hussey out to sea, he stopped in the middle of a group of breaching sperm whales. He killed one of them, and when he returned to land, he found that the whale's oil made excellent candle oil.
Off the Carolina coast, Edward Teach - more commonly known as Blackbeard, a ruthless pirate - was captured and beheaded.
Jean Baptistede Bienville
Jean Baptistede Bienville overlooked the French settlements in south Louisiana, including New Orleans.
By 1720, 25 percent of New England's popualtion belonged to a church.
In the 1720s, Pennsylvania had dozens of large shipyards, leading the colonies into shipbuilding in the 1750s.
Cotton Mather led a campaign in New England for the inoculation of smallpox.
League of Six
The five nations of Cayoga, Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, and Seneca, became the League of Six, as they added Tuscarora to the league.
The crown took over Carolina from it's proprietors and seperated it into North and South Carolina.
The New York govenor, William Cosby, took bribes, sold property that wasn't his, rigged elections, and tampered with courts.
Georgia was founded as a military outpost and buffer against Spanish Florida.
William Cosby's supporters were defeated in a city election.
The best lawyer in America, Andrew Hamilton, defended Cosby's opponent, John Peter Zenger, in trial.
"More freedom give to womenkind, or give to mankind less."
Ministers went from town to town holding revival meetings and urging people to return to their faith.
Eliza Lucas began selling the best quality indigo dyes.
King George's War
King George's War did not change the balance of power in North America.
After protest, slavery was unbanned, and plantations with slavery caused the colonies to expand rapidly.
The growing population in the colonies helped shift the balance of power between France and England.
Up Against Much More
The French colonists numbered barely 80,000, compared to over 1,000,000 British.
A message from Virginia's government went to the French whose forts were on the Ohio River Valley.
to discuss the relations with the Iroquois, the British called a meeting in Albany.
To drive the French from the Upper Ohio Valley, 22 year old George Washington led a single file line of 132 soldiers to Alexandria, Virginia.
General Edward Braddock
George Washington failed to drive the French from the Ohio River Valley, and the second attempt was led by General Edward Braddock in 1755.
Seven Years War
The Seven Years War between Britain and France, caused them to fight in Europe, India, and North America. The Seven Years War, as it is known in France, is often called The French Revolution, in the United States.
William Pitt became Britian's secretary of state and virtual prime minister.
The British captured the important French fort at Louisbourg.
Britain's James Wolfe sailed up the Saint Lawrence River to attack French Quebec.
Treaty of Paris
The Seven Years War ended with the Treaty of Paris.