Made the first colony attempt and earned Native American distrust on previous expeditions.
Period: Sep 3, 1539 to Sep 3, 1543
Died after a military victory against the Native Americans because too many horses and men were wounded.
Sep 3, 1540
Francisco Vasquez de Coronado
Cabeza de Vaca had reported "golden cities". Vasquez wanted to conquer them, but in the process created Native American-Spanish distrust by plundering/raping/being generally horrible to them.
Sep 3, 1541
First French Colony Established
Many attacks by Stadacona and harsh winters forced the French to abandon the colony 2 years later.
Sep 3, 1562
French Colony in Florida
Huguenots seeking religious freedom settled in Florida. Spanish saw the Protestants as a threat and destroyed them a year later.
Sep 3, 1565
St. Augustine, Florida Established
St. Augustine was the first lasting European post in the New World. It was a solo military stronghold and served as a base for Franciscan Missions.
Roanoke was the first English settlement in America, it "disappeared" after conflict with Native Americans.
New Mexico Established
Juan de Onate seized a Pueblo and declared the royal colony of Nueva Mexico for Spain. Spain later replaced Onate because of mismanagement and brutality.
Virginia Company(s) Chartered
For More Info Click hereChartered by James I for the purpose of settling in North America There were two. Plymouth failed due to infighting and Native American conflict. The Jamestown colony almost failed but succeeded because of John Smith, who enforced military order, work gangs, sanitation policies, and the concept of "working to eat".
Samuel de Champlain
Founded New France at Quebec. The Battle at Lake Champlain was a Native American-French allied conflict against the Mohawks.
The Dutch were Calvinist and wealthy. They settled mainly in New York and relied heavily on the Five Nations Iroquois as military allies and commercial clients.
First Anglo-Powhatan War
The settlers and Natives clashed over land disputes, Pocahontas was captured and married to John Rolfe.
John Rolfe is the literal only reason why Jamestown succeeded. Tobacco exports created a need for indentured servants and caused the headright act. Additionally, families needed to live near water to trade their crops. Large plantations caused isolation between families.
First Meeting of the House of Burgesses
The HoB was the first legislative assembly in the American colonies. Burgesses were elected representatives. Only white men who owned property could elect Burgesses.
Thomas Weston sent over 102 people in the Mayflower. The Mayflower Compact established majority rule and was the first written democratic process in the New World.
Combined human reason and skepticism. In America, the enlightened thinkers were Christian, but feared excesses.
Second Anglo-Powhatan War
Left the Virginia Company bankrupt. James I revoked the charter and Virginia became a royal colony.
Tobacco sales shrink
Tobacco sales sank 97%.
Massachusetts Bay Colony
"A city upon a hill" - attempted to be a model Puritan community for all other sinners. John Winthrop wanted an ideal society with godlike standards for it's people. Every adult male churchgoer was allowed to vote.
Lord Baltimore established the proprietary colony of Maryland. The crown only controlled war and trade. Lord Baltimore could appoint all sheriffs and create a local nobility. Marlyand was also a refuge for Catholics. However, the majority of the population was Protestant.
Roger Williams Banished
Roger Williams believed in the separation of church and state. He created Providence and Rhode Island.
Created to educate ministers
Anne Hutchinson Banished
Strong believer in predestination, doubted clergy's spiritual state, and defied gender norms by advocating for a Purification of the Puritan church. Henry Vane and many members of the assembly supported "free grace" Antinomian politics, but John Winthrop was voted back into office and began purging the Antinomians.
Act for Religious Toleration
Allowed free worship of all Christians, but sentenced any non Christian to death.
Declared that all English trade be carried in English ships, enumerated commodities exported and imported by English only, all foreign molasses taxed. Limited all trade to Britain, urbanized the colonies, gave tobacco growers a monopoly, diversified the economy, protected the market.
Rebellion and War
Armed conflict between former indentured servants and the residents of Jamestown. The rebellion began when Jamestown refused to offer protection to the surrounding properties.
Dominion of New England
James II combined Rhode Island, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Conneticut, and Plymouth into one massive royal colony. This gave him more control over the colonies. Massachusetts hated the new governor and the DNE.
The Glorious Revolution
James II overthrown and replaced by William of Orange. England became a limited monarchy with an English Bill of Rights. The DNE was dismantled and Massachusetts was issued a new charter.
John Coode feared that Lord Baltimore still supported James II. He seized control and removed all Catholics from office. Maryland recieved a royal governor. Catholics lost the right to vote and the ability to worship. Lord Baltimore joined the Church of England and Maryland became proprietary again.
A Generation of War
War reinforced British identity in colonies and drew awareness to military weaknesses.
Fearing that English troops were loyal to James II, denied them entry. He was hanged.
Grand Settlement of 1701
5 Nations Iroquois treated with France and allies and redefined their alliance with the British.
Queen Anne's War
France and allies destroyed New England towns, the Spanish invaded Carolinas.
Justices Basic Unit of Government
Justices set taxes, paid officials, oversaw infrastructure, and were chosen by the governor of the colony.
Convict Laborers Begin to Arrive
Very trivial offenses to murder, sold as servants and sent to Georgia. English didn't like ethnically different immigrants.
The Great Awakening
Split American Protestantism into many denominations, although many of them were similar. Old Lights were old fashioned ministers. New Lights like George Whitefield were charismatic and converted thousands.