Servants colonists america 2

Colonial America (1607-1763)

  • Roanoke Island Established

    Roanoke Island Established
    • Sir Walter Raleigh organized the colonization of Roanoke Island, Virginia (today it's known as North Carolina). The colony lasted for only one year, until 1586. The second attempt to settle there in 1587 did not do well and failed and the colony disappeared sometime before 1590.
  • Jamestown

    Jamestown
    • The 100 people that sailed on the Susan Constant ended up at what would become Jamestown. They were hoping to exploit some resources and make a quick profit. This settlement was not so successful and they also got malaria. The main reason for this is that these were gentry men (a lot of jewelers and goldsmiths) that had no pioneering skills. Having Jamestown in a triangle shape was a smart idea, so it was easier to defend. There were tall walls surrounding it.
  • Jamestown Continued

    Jamestown Continued
    • The settlers were not used to farming/physical labor. Finally Captain John Smith comes along and realizes houses need to be built and food needs to be grown. He stayed in Virginia for 2 years. He was also known for being a jerk and agitating the Native Americans. 6,000 people moved to Virginia, but after about 25 years, only 1,300 people were left. The survival rate was about 20%, so in other words a lot of colonists died!
  • Jamestown Continued #2

    Jamestown Continued #2
    • King James I of England made Jamestown a royal colony because it was bankrupt and he was irritated with the whole situation. Jamestown is considered the first successful English colony in America. Jamestown might be considered a turning point in history because it eventually led to the creation of America. One last note: Virginia was founded by the Virginia Company and Jamestown was in Virginia.
  • Jamestown Continued #3

    Jamestown Continued #3
    • The first session of the first colonial legislative assembly, the Virginia House of Burgesses, came together and met in Jamestown (1619). Jamestown was eventually burned by Nathaniel Bacon + the rebels (1676).
    • Here's the link for a short video clip about Jamestown + the House of Burgesses: http://www.jamestowndemocracy.org/Video.html
  • Period: to

    Colonial America

  • Salutary Neglect

    Salutary Neglect
    • This means the British Parliament wasn’t so strict and didn’t enforce so many laws in the American colonies, so that they would be obedient. The British Parliament didn’t want counter-productive results.
  • Indentured Servants

    Indentured Servants
    • There were indentured servants working on farms starting in the 1610's. Slavery began in the colonies and twenty Africans were brought by a Dutch ship to Jamestown for sale as indentured servants (1619).
    • They worked for a master for 7-10 years and could be bought or sold while still working. After the 7-10 years was up, the indentured servant got his or her freedom dues. Many worked on plantations planting crops like tobacco, et cetera. Many people didn’t outlive their contract.
  • Indentured Servants Continued

    Indentured Servants Continued
    • Indentured servants needed permission from their masters to marry. However, many masters did not let their indentured servants marry until the 7-10 years was up. Many servants were young, especially men because they were stronger and could do more work. There were women indentured servants also.
  • Tobacco in the Colonies

    Tobacco in the Colonies
    • Tobacco was introduced in the Virginia colony by John Rolfe (1612).
    • Tobacco became an export staple for Virginia (1616).
    • The Navigation Act of 1660 allowed the colonies to trade with only English-built ships and crews had to be at least three-quarters English. The captain had to be English.
  • Tobacco in the Colonies Continued

    Tobacco in the Colonies Continued
    • Certain enumerated goods, including indigo, sugar, cotton and tobacco, (including ginger at one point) were allowed to be shipped only to England or other English colonies (1660).
    • This was a very important and profitable crop for the American colonies, esp. in the south. It was extremely labor-intensive because it was an eleven-month crop. About 6 months after planting, it required constant care. It was a delicate crop that flourished but hurt the soil.
  • Tobacco in the Colonies Continued #2

    Tobacco in the Colonies Continued #2
    • Farmers had to find and add on new farm land all the time because tobacco hurt the soil and robbed it of its nutrients. Tobacco was especially important in Virginia along the James River.
  • Headright System

    Headright System
    • This meant a Virginian got 50 acres of land for every person a settler paid to bring over. It was a system of obtaining land.
  • Slavery in the Colonies

    Slavery in the Colonies
    • Rhode Island: Had the first colonial law making slavery illegal (1652).
    • Pennsylvania: Quakers in Pennsylvania formally protest against slavery in America (1688). Then, Pennsylvania made sure slavery was gradually abolished. Massachusetts made a bill of rights that went for blacks and whites equally (1780).
  • Slavery in the Colonies Continued

    Slavery in the Colonies Continued
    • The English started enslaving Africans because the slave labor was "crucial" to the establishment of successful colonies. The English wanted to enslave blacks to grow crops so the English could make a profit. Enslaving Native Americans and indentured servant slave labor didn’t work out so well and wasn't successful. Africans were mostly brought over in large waves. There were different groups of African-Americans in the American colonies, so there were many different cultures and traditions.
  • Slavery in the Colonies Continued #2

    Slavery in the Colonies Continued #2
    • At first having children and forming families was difficult, but that wasn’t true by the 1750’s.
    • Pretty much all families were separated at some point, so slaves didn't always live/work with their family on the plantation. Boys especially and girls from the age of 15-25 were "preferred" for labor. Slaves worked very hard for their owners, notably in the Chesapeake where tobacco was grown.
    • Link to Slavery Video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ajn9g5Gsv98&list=PL8dPuuaLjXtMwmepBjTSG5
  • House of Burgesses

    House of Burgesses
    • (Est. 1619) - Lower house of legislature in colonial Virginia. There was a representative government.
    • “It assumed the role of the common house in England.” They had control over finances, militia, etc. By the end of the 1600’s the House of Burgesses was able to initiate legislation. The first session of the first colonial legislative assembly (the Virginia House of Burgesses) met in Jamestown.
    • Here's a short video clip on the house of Burgesses: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Wm1R-wpy-4k
  • Pilgrims/Separatists

    Pilgrims/Separatists
    • Pilgrims: One of the first peace treaties between colonists and Native Americans, specifically the Plymouth pilgrims and the Wampanoag Tribe, was signed with Squanto's help. He was an English-speaking Native American. -The Pilgrims or Separatists wanted to separate from the Anglican Church of England completely. They initially moved to Holland (a.k.a. the Netherlands) and were not happy because there because they became more like the Dutch (cultural assimilation).
  • Puritan Work Ethic and Treatment of Children

    Puritan Work Ethic and Treatment of Children
    • Definition: "A belief in the moral benefit and importance of work and its inherent ability to strengthen character."
    • Children couldn’t show excessive emotion or have ‘sinful’ distractions. Church attendance was very important. Gender roles were very important, so men were involved in outdoor activities like farming/hunting, and women were involved in indoor activities like cooking/"homemaking." Puritan children didn’t have many toys and were strictly disciplined mentally and physically.
  • Pilgrims/Separatists Continued

    Pilgrims/Separatists Continued
    • The Pilgrims didn’t like their new life in the Netherlands so they got on the Mayflower and sailed to America in 1620. They formed a joint stock company and they sold “tickets” to about 65 more people in addition to the 35 that were originally going to go. The Pilgrims got to what would become Cape Cod in 1620. They called their settlement Plymouth. In November of 1621 the Pilgrims had a huge harvest from the crops they planted in the spring of 1621 (thanksgiving).
  • Pilgrims/Separatists Continued #2 and Puritans

    Pilgrims/Separatists Continued #2 and Puritans
    • In the winter of 1620-1, life was hard for the Pilgrims because it was cold/they couldn’t plant crops, but Squanto, a Native American, helped them. He showed them how to plant crops like corn. William Bradford was in charge of the Plymouth settlement. In about 12 years, about 18,000 to 20,000 Puritans had moved to Massachusetts. The Puritans (sort of) had a theocracy, which means man is governed according to God’s law. A legislature was set up and was called the General Court.
  • Pilgrims/Separatists Continued #3 and Puritans

    Pilgrims/Separatists Continued #3 and Puritans
    • The Puritans established a very successful settlement but still had problems w/ keeping the Native Americans in one place. King Philip’s War will happen because of the tension between the two groups.
  • Puritan Life- Interesting Fact

    Puritan Life- Interesting Fact
    Interesting Fact: Nobody could be unsupervised and Puritans were pretty much always together. The Puritans were a very focused and hard-working people. Life was not very private for them- people then might have become suspicious if you were alone.
  • Mayflower Compact

    Mayflower Compact
    • It was an agreement between the Pilgrim men/Pilgrims to from a crude government and have majority rule. This said the Pilgrims had to follow “just and equal laws.” It was probably formed by Pilgrim men and everybody had to follow it.
  • The Mayflower Landed and Puritans Settled

    The Mayflower Landed and Puritans Settled
  • Thanksgiving

    Thanksgiving
  • Peter Minuit Purchased Manhattan Island

    Peter Minuit Purchased Manhattan Island
    • Peter Minuit, a Dutch colonist, purchased Manhattan island from Native Americans (the Lenape Indians) for $24 and named the island New Amsterdam.
  • 20,000 Immigrants Came to the New England Area

    20,000 Immigrants Came to the New England Area
    • (1630's) - 20,000 immigrated to New England area, mostly made up of yeoman families.
    • A yeoman was one who owned his own land and they could be guards, attendants, officials, etc. This class was between the gentry and labor classes, sort of like the middle class we have today.
  • Maryland Granted to I Lord Baltimore by Charles I, First Settled

    Maryland Granted to I Lord Baltimore by Charles I, First Settled
    • A royal charter was granted to George Calvert or I Lord Baltimore in 1632. It was a proprietary colony. It was in a better location than Jamestown + tobacco was the main crop. He wanted to govern as an absentee proprietor in a feudal relationship (think medieval times). He granted huge tracts of land to his Catholic relatives (who had more rights than Protestants). It was a haven for Catholics. Colonists wanted to come to MD only if they got land.
  • Maryland Continued

    Maryland Continued
    • The Anglican Church was established as the official church of Maryland (1702).
    • Baltimore was founded in the Maryland colony (1730).
  • Roger Williams Banished

    Roger Williams Banished
    • On October 9, 1635, Roger Williams was banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
    • Why? He was banished because he thought citizens should be able to practice any religion, he denounced mandatory worship, he thought church + state should be separate, he thought Puritans weren’t pure unless they break away from the Anglican Church, and he also said it wasn’t right for the Puritans to just start living on Native American land.
  • Roger Williams founds Providence and Rhode Island

    Roger Williams founds Providence and Rhode Island
    • Roger Williams founds Providence and Rhode Island. Providence then became a haven for colonists, like Williams, "fleeing religious intolerance."
    • Actually, Williams was going to be sent to England because he had "crazy" ideas and was "radical," but he escaped!
  • Anne Hutchinson Banished To Westchester, New York

    Anne Hutchinson Banished To Westchester, New York
    • On March 22, 1638, Anne Hutchinson was banished from Massachusetts.
    • Why? She believed church membership should be about "inner grace," and not about things like church attendance. She was banished because she had radical ideas, she criticized clergy leaders, she promoted antinomianism and she was a woman.
    • She was a "double threat" because of her radical ideas, and she was a woman.
    • After being banished to Westchester, New York, she and her family were killed by Native Americans.
  • Maryland Toleration Act

    Maryland Toleration Act
    • The act that was passed in Maryland that guaranteed toleration to all Christians, regardless of sect but not to people who didn't believe in the divinity of Jesus, like atheists. The death penalty was given to those who didn't believe in the divinity of Jesus.
    • The act was really only tolerant of Christians.
  • Navigation Acts (3)

    Navigation Acts (3)
    • (1650, 1660, and 1663) -In 1650, these were laws passed by the British to protect the mercantile system. They would 1) bring money into the treasury, 2) develop an imperial merchant fleet, 3) channel flow of raw materials from the colonies to England, and 4) keep foreign goods and vessels out of colonial ports. Between the years of 1660-1680, these laws weren’t enforced because there weren’t enough ships. -The New Navigation Act (1660) reserved entire trade of the colonies to English ships.
  • Navigation Acts (3) Continued

    Navigation Acts (3) Continued
    • 1660: There/it had to be: An English ship, with an English captain, and 2/3 of the crew had to be English. Things on ships could only be sold to England like tobacco, ginger, cotton, sugar, dyes (indigo). These were the enumerated goods.
    • 1663: 3 years later, all European goods (e.g., French) goods going to the colonies had to go through England first. The English would also tax the goods. (- The new enumerated items in the early 1700’s: naval stores, furs, and copper).
  • Navigation Acts Continued #2

    Navigation Acts Continued #2
  • Halfway Covenant

    Halfway Covenant
    • This meant there was partial membership for people who were not yet converted (e.g. children/grandchildren of members). The Puritan church supported it and that meant that more people could join the Puritan Congregational Churches- membership wasn’t limited to just “visible saints.” - The church became more supportive of this over time.
  • King Philip's War

    King Philip's War
  • Bacon's Rebellion Continued

    Bacon's Rebellion Continued
    • Berkeley monopolized fur trade with the Native Americans in the area- he worried about attacks, but didn’t retaliate. He was driven from Jamestown, the capital of Virginia, and Bacon + the rebels burned the capital.
    • Another reason why Bacon rebelled is that he didn't like the elites in Jamestown controlling almost all of the business in Virginia.
    • Native American tribes, like the Susquehannocks, did not play a big role in Bacon's Rebellion.
  • Bacon's Rebellion Continued #2

    Bacon's Rebellion Continued #2
    • Bacon and his western Virginia rebels also crush the Susquehannock Indians who have been attacking the settlers of western Virginia. The rebellion fell apart when Bacon died suddenly that year.
  • Bacon's Rebellion

    Bacon's Rebellion
    • Nathaniel Bacon hated Sir William Berkeley.
    • Why-Berkeley favored plantation owners over poor farmers, and there was a power struggle. and Bacon betrayed his own people. Nathaniel led 1,000 frontiersmen and indentured servants in a rebellion against Sir William Berkeley (governor of Virginia; 1642-76). As a result of Bacon’s Rebellion, 1) there was a change from indentured servants to slaves, and 2) the English wanted to have a little more control over the colonies (less salutary neglect).
  • The Holy Experiment

    The Holy Experiment
    • William Penn’s ideal Quaker ‘community’ with' ideal' society, law, politics, and government. This was in the state of Pennsylvania, and Penn + the Quakers wanted to be a model for others.
    • How the name Pennsylvania came to be: Penn was taken, sylvania was added, which means forest/woodlands in Latin, so it means Penn's Forest.
  • Dominion of New England

    Dominion of New England
    • (1686-1689) - The Dominion of New England only lasted for 3 years and was not very successful because of the Glorious Revolution. It was a brief attempt to combine all colonies north of Pennsylvania, along with New York.
    • During this time, assemblies were abolished; people were more tolerant of Anglicans.
  • The Great Awakening

    The Great Awakening
    • The Great Awakening was religious revival movement that began with Jonathan Edwards, a Congregationalist clergyman, preaching a series of sermons in Northampton, Massachusetts. Over the next ten years Edwards and George Whit(e)field were a part of the revival (starting 1734).
  • The Enlightenment

    The Enlightenment
    • The four main ideas were 1) republicanism- system of gov’t. elected by the people of the nation, 2) indv. Liberty- “life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness,” 3) democracy- “of the people, by the people, for the people,” and 4) religious tolerance- people are free to choose + practice their own religion.
  • The Great Awakening Continued

    The Great Awakening Continued
    • The Great Awakening was a time of enthusiasm and passion about religion. It was a religious expression and an evangelical movement. People from many denominations were a part of The Great Awakening. It occurred first in the late 1730’s and really took off in the 1740’s, peaking at 1741-42. It took place in England, Scotland, Wales, and the American colonies.
    • This is around the time when the south became the ‘Bible Belt.’
  • John Peter Zenger Trial

    John Peter Zenger Trial
    • John Peter Zenger, a New York newspaper publisher, was accused of seditious libel by the Governor. He was not found guilty after his lawyer successfully convinced the jury that truth protects John against libel (damaging Cosby's reputation).
    • John was born in 1697 and died in 1746 – He was a NY printer and journalist who made freedom of the press possible for the English Colonies in North America. He was a German immigrant and he published the New York Weekly Journal.
  • John Peter Zenger Trial Continued

    John Peter Zenger Trial Continued
    • He badmouthed William S. Cosby (1732-36, British Royal Governor of NY- he died in 1736, born in 1690). There was a trial, a jury, and a verdict. John Peter Zenger won! That’s why we have freedom of the press today.
    • The exact date of the freedom of the press is August 5, 1735. (- Too bad he had to sit in jail for a whole year before the trial even started).
  • John Peter Zenger Trial Continued #2

    John Peter Zenger Trial Continued #2
  • George III's Reign

    George III's Reign
    • George III's Reign lasted from 1738–1820, and he was king of England from 1760–1820. He was the grandson of George II.
  • Stono's Rebellion

    Stono's Rebellion
    -From PBS:
    South Carolina, September 9, 1739: A band of slaves march down the road, carrying banners that proclaim "Liberty!". They shout out the same word. Led by an Angolan named Jemmy, the men and women continue to walk south, recruiting more slaves along the way. By the time they stop to rest for the night, their numbers will have approached one hundred.
    What exactly triggered the Stono Rebellion is not clear.
  • Stono's Rebellion Continued

    Stono's Rebellion Continued
    • Many slaves knew that small groups of runaways had made their way from South Carolina to Florida, where they had been given freedom and land. Looking to cause unrest within the English colonies, the Spanish had issued a proclamation stating that any slave who deserted to St Augustine would be given the same treatment. Certainly this influenced the potential rebels and made them willing to accept their situation.
  • Stono's Rebellion Continued #2

    Stono's Rebellion Continued #2
    -Whatever triggered the rebellion, early on the morning of the 9th, a Sunday, about twenty slaves gathered near the Stono River in St. Paul's Parish, less than twenty miles from Charlestown.
    -The slaves stopped in a large field late that afternoon, just before reaching the Edisto River. They had marched over ten miles and killed between twenty and twenty-five whites. -No longer would slaves be allowed to grow their own food, assemble in groups, earn their own money, or learn to read.
  • Stono's Rebellion Continued #3

    Stono's Rebellion Continued #3
    Here is the link for more information on Stono's Rebellion:
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ApecpIAWKYU
  • French and Indian War

    French and Indian War
  • French and Indian War Continued

    French and Indian War Continued
  • General Edward Braddock and George Washington

    General Edward Braddock and George Washington
    • Direct Quote: "English General Edward Braddock and George Washington battle the French in the Ohio territory, only to be defeated by a force of French and Indians. Braddock is mortally wounded and is replaced by Massachusetts Governor William Shirley as the new commander in chief."
  • Alexander Hamilton Born and Facts About His Life

    Alexander Hamilton Born and Facts About His Life
    • On January 11, 1757 (approximately), Alexander Hamilton was born. He died in 1804. He was an American statesman and a leader of the Federalists and as first secretary of the Treasury (1789-95) and he established a federal bank.
  • Unlimited Warfare

    Unlimited Warfare
    • Direct Quote: "William Pitt, England's Secretary of State, establishes a policy of unlimited warfare."
  • English Defeated by French

    English Defeated by French
    • Direct Quote: "English forces are defeated in Lake George, New York by French forces at Fort Ticonderoga."
  • First Native American Reservation in America

    First Native American Reservation in America
    • Direct Quote: "The first Indian reservation in America is founded, in New Jersey."
  • French Fort Niagra Captured

    French Fort Niagra Captured
    • Direct Quote: "French Fort Niagara is captured by the English."
  • War Between Cherokee Indians and Southern Colonists

    War Between Cherokee Indians and Southern Colonists
    • Direct Quote: "A war erupted between Cherokee Indians and southern colonists."
  • Much of Boston Destroyed

    Much of Boston Destroyed
    • Direct Quote: "Much of Boston is destroyed by a raging fire."
  • Québec Surrendered to the English

    Québec Surrendered to the English
    • Direct Quote: "Québec surrendered to the English."