• War of 1812

    War of 1812
    The War of 1812 was a conflict fought between the United States and its allies, and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and its dependent colonies in North America and Native American allies.
  • Congress of Vienna

    Congress of Vienna
    The Congress of Vienna of 1814–1815 was the most important international diplomatic conference in European history, reconstituting the European political order after the downfall of the French Emperor Napoleon I.
  • The Quadruple Alliance

    The Quadruple Alliance
    The Quadruple Alliance was formed by the monarchist Great Powers of Austria, Prussia, Russia, and Great Britain to counter the military and revolutionary republican political threats posed by the expansion of the First French Empire under Napoleon I and to fight the War of the Seventh Coalition.
  • Formation of the Burschenschaften

    Formation of the Burschenschaften
    Burschenschaften were founded in the 19th century as associations of university students inspired by liberal and nationalistic ideas. They were significantly involved in the March Revolution and the unification of Germany.
  • Principles of Political Economies Published - Iron Law of Wages

    Principles of Political Economies Published - Iron Law of Wages
    On the Principles of Political Economy and Taxation is a book by David Ricardo on economics. The book concludes that land rent grows as population increases.
  • Liberation of Colombia

    Liberation of Colombia
    Simon Bolivar led the liberation of Colombia and Venezuela. Colombia in 1819 and Venezuela in 1821.
  • Peterloo Massacre

    Peterloo Massacre
    The Peterloo Massacre was a response by the people in regards to the Tories Corn Law Measure of 1815. The military was sent into St. Peters Field in Manchester and ended up killing people.
  • Carlsbad Decrees

    Carlsbad Decrees
    The Carlsbad Decrees were a set of reactionary restrictions introduced in the states of the German Confederation by resolution of the Bundesversammlung on 20 September 1819 after a conference held in the spa town of Carlsbad, Bohemia.
  • Greek Revolution

    Greek Revolution
    A series of military campaigns waged by Greek revolutionaries against the Ottoman Empire and Muslim minorities between 1821 and 1830
  • Spanish King Put Back on Throne

    Spanish King Put Back on Throne
    The Spanish Royalists restored King Ferdinand VII of Spain to the absolute power of which he had been deprived during the Liberal Triennium.
  • Decembrist Revolt

    Decembrist Revolt
    Northern Union revolted against Russian monarchy and was crushed by loyalist troops. Was in response to the naming of Tsar Nicholas.
  • New Police Forces

    New Police Forces
    New form of police officers were sent around major cities. Originally meant to prevent crime, but eventually were used to keep working class in place.
  • July Revolution

    July Revolution
    The French Revolution of 1830, also known as the July Revolution, Second French Revolution or Trois Glorieuses in French, led to the overthrow of King Charles X.
  • Belgian Revolt

    Belgian Revolt
    The Belgian Revolution was the conflict which led to the secession of the southern provinces from the United Kingdom of the Netherlands and the establishment of an independent Kingdom of Belgium. The people of the south were mainly Flemings and Walloons.
  • July Ordinances

    July Ordinances
    July Ordinances, also known as the Four Ordinances of Saint-Cloud, were a series of decrees set forth by Charles X and Jules Armand de Polignac, the chief minister, in July 1830. Limited freedoms of the French citizens.
  • Young Italy Founded

    Young Italy Founded
    Young Italy was a political movement for Italian youth founded in 1831 by Giuseppe Mazzini. After a few months of leaving Italy, in June 1831, Mazzini wrote a letter to King Charles Albert of Sardinia, in which he asked him to unite Italy and lead the nation
  • Reform Act of 1832

    Reform Act of 1832
    The Representation of the People Act 1832 was an Act of Parliament of the United Kingdom that introduced major changes to the electoral system of England and Wales.
  • Zollverein

    The Zollverein, or German Customs Union, was a coalition of German states formed to manage tariffs and economic policies within their territories.
  • Poor Laws of 1834

    Poor Laws of 1834
    The Poor Law Amendment Act 1834 known widely as the New Poor Law, was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom passed by the Whig government of Earl Grey. It completely replaced earlier legislation based on the Poor Law of 1601 and attempted to fundamentally change the poverty relief system in England and Wales.
  • Publishing of The Duties of Man

    Publishing of The Duties of Man
    In Joseph Mazzini's essay entitled “The Duties of Man” he refers to man's duties as those things which the heart dictates as the most sacred things which he knows, “of God, of Humanity, of the Fatherland, of the Family”. Mazzini goes on to describe the things in life which come before rights, duties.
  • Repeal of the Corn Laws

    Repeal of the Corn Laws
    Corn laws were abolished because the industrialists and urban dwellers were unhappy with high food prices; as a result of which they forced the abolition of the Corn Laws.
  • Frankfurt Assembly

    Frankfurt Assembly
    The Frankfurt Parliament was the first freely elected parliament for all of Germany, including the German-populated areas of Austria-Hungary, elected on 1 May 1848. The session was held from 18 May 1848 to 31 May 1849, in the Paulskirche at Frankfurt am Main.
  • The Revolutions of 1848

    The Revolutions of 1848
    The Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Springtime of the Peoples or the Springtime of Nations, were a series of political upheavals throughout Europe in 1848. It remains the most widespread revolutionary wave in European history.
  • Italian States Revolution of 1848

    Italian States Revolution of 1848
    As Italian nationalists they sought to eliminate reactionary Austrian control. During this time period of 1848, Italy was not a unified country, and was divided into many states, which, in Northern Italy, were ruled by the Austrian Empire.
  • Czech Revolution Attempt

    Czech Revolution Attempt
    The nascent Czech nationalist movement, which was strongest among the petty bourgeoisie of Prague and the lesser Bohemian towns, called for liberal constitutional reforms and equal educational rights for Czech-speakers and Germans. Revolt was crushed.