timeline gonzalo

  • 476

    THE BEGINNING OF THE MIDDLE AGES

    THE BEGINNING OF THE MIDDLE AGES
    Fall of the Western Roman Empire
  • Period: 590 to 604

    GREGORIAN CHANT

    During this time the Gregorian chant was developed. It is also known as plainchant or plainsong and named after Pope St. Gregory the Great. This pope was credited with bringing it to the West.
  • 695

    INVENTION OF THE ORGANUM

    INVENTION OF THE ORGANUM
    The organum was developed. It is an early form of counterpoint, which eventually led to polyphony. This type of song had a plainchant melody with at least one added voice to enhance the harmony.
  • 732

    BATTLE OF TOURS

    BATTLE OF TOURS
    The Franks defeat the Muslims turning back Islam from Europe
  • 1440

    THE PRINTER

    THE PRINTER
    Goldsmith and inventor Johannes Gutenberg was a political exile from Mainz, Germany when he began experimenting with printing in Strasbourg, France in 1440. He returned to Mainz several years later and by 1450, had a printing machine perfected and ready to use commercially: The Gutenberg press.
  • Period: 1453 to

    RENAISSANCE

    After the
    discovery of America, trading routes and colonies were established all over the world.
    Monarchies strengthened their power and laid the foundations of the modern state.
    Science made huge advances and economic growth meant big social transformations.
  • 1478

    THE SPANISH INQUISITION

    One of the most deadly inquisitions in history, it was designed to root out all non Catholics i.e Jews and Muslims.
  • Period: 1483 to 1520

    RAPHAEL

    Italian painter who learned from da Vinci and Michelangelo. Best known for his paintings of the Madonna and “The School of Athens.”
  • 1492

    THE END OF THE MIDDLE AGES

    THE END OF THE MIDDLE AGES
    Discovery of America
  • Period: 1501 to 1550

    1501 to 1550: POLITICS AND THE REFORMATION

    In 1503, Julius II was appointed pope, bringing in the start of the Roman Golden Age.
    Henry VIII came to power in England in 1509 and Francis I succeeded to the French Throne in 1515
    Charles V took power in Spain in 1516, and in 1530, he became Holy Roman Emperor.
    The Italian Wars finally came to a close: In 1525 the Battle of Pavia took place between France and the Holy Roman Empire, ending French claims on Italy.
    "The Ambassadors," "Regiomontanus," and "On Triangles" in 1533.
  • 1503

    LA GIOCONDA (MONA LISA)

    Mona Lisa, also called Portrait of Lisa Gherardini, wife of Francesco del Giocondo, Italian La Gioconda, or French La Joconde, oil painting on a poplar wood panel by Leonardo da Vinci, probably the world's most famous painting.
  • 1517

    PROTESTANT REFORMATION

    Protestant Reformation sparked by Martin Luther. Significant changes occurred to church music such as the introduction of a chorale. It was also the period when the Psalms of the Bible were translated into French and then set to music.
  • Period: 1539 to

    WILLIAM BYRD

    English composer known for his development of the English madrigal and his religious organ music.
  • Period: 1551 to

    CACCINI

    Start of monody which will last until the 1700s. Monody refers to an accompanied solo music. Examples of early monody can be found in the book "Le Nuove Musiche" by Giulio Caccini. The book is a collection of songs for the figured bass and solo voice, it also included madrigals. "Le Nuove Musiche" is considered one of Caccini's most important works.
  • THE BAROQUE PERIOD BEGINS

    The Baroque period had begun at about 1600 after the reformation as almost counter-reformation; the term Baroque literally means irregular or odd. The art, music, and architecture all display what the Baroque period was about.
  • Period: to

    CARLO MADERO

    One well known architects of the baroque period included Carlo Maderno who lived in the early baroque, whom constructed the facade of Saint Peter's Basilica. The Basilica included double columns and broken pediments which are common in the baroque period; his style was mimicked by others later in the baroque period.
  • ELIZABETH TUD

    A queen at 25, Elizabeth Tudor, Queen Regnant of England, and Queen Regnant of Ireland, ruled successfully, despite inheriting a nation which looked like it has no future when compared to mighty Spain and France. Elizabeth Tudor had a fulfilling life for the most of it and died on 24 March 1603.
  • Period: to

    The Thirty Year War

    Possibly one of the most apocalyptic conflicts that European history may have seen, the Thirty Years War happened partially as a result of the ongoing struggle between the Protestants and the Catholics, but that wasn’t all. Political issues were also very evidently a major reason for this long-lasting war which finally came to an end in 1648, in the part of Europe that we today know as Germany.
  • Period: to

    ALEXANDER POPE

    English poet noted for his translations of Homer and his editions of Shakespeare, as well as his satirical poetry. He is considered one of the greatest exponents of eighteenth-century letters in his country, and he cultivated Latin, elegy and essay in his work.
  • THE BAROQUE CONCERT

    During the last twenty years of the s. XVll emerged a new type of orchestral composition: the concerto. The development of the baroque concerto was considered an ideal means to exhibit the virtuosity of various instrumentalists (string plus continuous bass). The concerts were performances that were given as an introduction to the mass or as an offertory. In the year 1700, approximately, three types of concertos were written: the orchestral concerto, the grosso concerto and the solo concerto.
  • THE CLASSICAL PERIOD

  • JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH DEATH

    He died of complications after eye surgery in 1750 at the age of 65. Bach enriched established German styles through his mastery of counterpoint, harmonic and motivic organisation, and his adaptation of rhythms, forms, and textures from abroad, particularly from Italy and France.
  • Period: to

    GIOVANNI VIOTTI

    Viotti was born at Fontanetto Po in the Kingdom of Sardinia (today in the province of Vercelli, Piedmont, Italy). For his musical talent, he was taken into the household of principe Alfonso dal Pozzo della Cisterna in Turin, where he received a musical education that prepared him to be a pupil of Gaetano Pugnani
  • THE GATE OF ALCALÁ

    The Puerta It is located in the center of the Plaza de la Independencia roundabout. At the intersection of Alcalá, Alfonso XII, Serrano and Salustiano Olózaga streets, next to the Retiro gates: Puerta de España, Puerta de la Independencia (main entrance to the Retiro gardens) and Puerta de Hernani. Alcalá is one of the five ancient royal gates that gave access to the city of Madrid (Spain).
  • Period: to

    FRENCH REVOLUTION

    The French Revolution (in French, Révolution française) was a social and political conflict, with various periods of violence, that convulsed France and, by extension of its implications, other European nations that faced supporters and opponents of the system known as the Old Regime. It began with the self-proclamation of the Third Estate as the National Assembly in 1789 and ended with Napoleon Bonaparte's coup d'état in 1799.
  • UNIVERSAL HUMAN RIGHTS

    The republic consecrated the universal rights of the human being under the slogan of “liberty, equality and fraternity”. The Enlightenment reflects the displacement of faith as the supreme value of humanity by that of reason. For this it was crucial to oppose the Greco-Roman tradition to the Christian one.
  • NAPOLEÓN BONAPARTE

    Napoleón he was a French soldier and statesman, republican general during the French Revolution and the Directory, and architect of the coup d'état of 18 brumaire that made him first consul
  • NAPOLEÓN BONAPARTE

    He was a French soldier and statesman, republican general during the French Revolution and the Directory, and architect of the coup d'état of 18 brumaire that made him first consul
  • THE END OF THE CLASSICAL PERIOD

  • START OF THE ROMANTIC PERIOD

  • BEETHOVEN'S SYMPHONY

    Considred one of Beethoven's greatest works, Symphony 9 is notable not only for its length and complexity, but for the fact that he introduced vocal soloists and a chorus into the final movement, as if the purely instrumental form of the classical symphony could not express all that he felt.
  • Period: to

    BEDRICH SMETANA

    Smetana had a natural talent for the piano and gave his first recital at the age of six. After receiving a conventional education at school, he studied music with Josef Proksch in Prague. He wrote his first nationalist composition during the Prague uprising of 1848, in which he briefly participated
  • GRAND CANYON OF THE YELLOWSTONE, THOMAS MORAN

    Thomas Moran and other American landscape painters were inspired by their natural surroundings and often painted outdoors. Moran was a part of the Hayden Geological Survey of 1871 team, where he documented over 30 different sites. His paintings helped inspire congress to create the Yellowstone region as the first National Park in 1872, in order to preserve the most beautiful parts of the country’s wilderness.
  • THOMAS BABINGTON MACAULAY

    Earl Grey appointed Macaulay as a commissioner of the Board of Control
  • Period: to

    ROSALÍA DE CASTRO

    Writing in Galician in the 19th century, that is, at the time Rosalía lived, was not easy at all for a large number of reasons. Most of them were linked to the thinking and structuring of the society of the time, in which the Galician language was highly discredited and underestimated, increasingly distant from that time in which it had been the vehicular language for the creation of Galician-Portuguese lyrics. .
  • Period: to

    CRIMEAN WAR

    The Crimean War was a military conflict fought from October 1853 to February 1856 in which Russia lost to an alliance of France, the Ottoman Empire, the United Kingdom and Piedmont-Sardinia. The immediate cause of the war involved the rights of Christian minorities in Palestine, which was part of the Ottoman Empire.
  • THE END OF THE ROMANTIC PERIOD