Period: 200,000 BCE to 600 BCE
Time period 1- from the start of modern HOMO SAPIENSNomadic humans slowly migrated across the earth, hunting and foraging for food. Then, agriculture and pastoralism began to transform human societies. By 600 B.C.E. Mesopotamia, India,Egypt,China,Mesoamerica, and the Andes had impressive civilizations that would provide the core of later civilizations in their regions.
Neolithic Revolution(Middle East)SPICE: Economic, means of production(agriculture and pastoralism
---- a set of dramatic changes in how people lived based on the development of agriculture.(agricultural revolution). Did not happen instantaneously or occur everywhere at the same time.
The Bronze Age(General)SPICE:Innovations/Interactions- technology
-----people learned metallurgy, through expiraments they learned that melting tin and copper made a stronger metal that is bronze.
Unification of Egypt as a single stateSPICE:Interactions- settlment patterns
----- Egyptian Civilization began its history around 3100 B.C.E, with the merger of several earlier states or chiefdoms into a unified territory that stretched 1,000 miles along the Nile.
The Olmec CivilizationSPICE: Interactions- settlement patterns
----- A first civilization known as the Olmec took shape in the Gulf of Mexico, sometimes regarded as "the mother civilization" of Mesoamerica.
The First Olympic gamesSPICE: Culture- greek culture identity
---------- Every four years Greek city states temporarily suspended their persisting rivalries to participate together in the Olympic Games.
Period: 600 BCE to 600
Time period 2- Organization and reorganization of human societiesThis time period saw the rise of great empires that became the core foundations of later civilizations in much of the world.
Establishment of Roman RepublicSPICE:Political-roman republic,government
-------Roman aristrocrats threw off the monarchy and established a republic in which the wealthy class,knowns as patricians, dominated.
The Persian EmpireSPICE: Interactions- settlement
--------The largest and most impressive of the world's empires was that of the Persians, an Indo-European people whose homeland lay on the Iranian plateau just north of the Persian Gulf.
Greco-Persian warsSPICE: Political-conflict/war
----------The Ionian Greek cities revolted against the Persians domination,therefore, Outraged by this assault from the Greeks, the Persians launched major military expeditions to punish the greeks in general and Athens in particular.(490-480 B.C.E)
Conquest of Alexander the greatSPICE:Political-conquests/war
------- Alexander prepeared to lead a massive Greek expedition against the Persian Empire which served to sought vengence on the earlier persian assault and to unify the fractious Greeks in a war against their common enemy.(333-323 B.C.E).
The Hellinistic EraSPICE:Cultural- spread of greek culture
-------This is the widespread dissemination of Greek culture in which Alexander's amazing conquests lay.(323-30 B.C.E)
The Roman and Chinese CivilizationsSPICE: Interactions-settlement
----------While the Greeks and Persians collided,two other classical empires were taking shape, the Roman Empire on the far western side of Eurasia and China's imperial state on the far eastern end. (giant empires of their time 200 B.C.E-200C.E)
------- A giant city to the north in the valley of Mexico, it was by far the largest urban complex in the Americas at the time and one of the six largest in the world.
Impiracle Academy in Han DynastySPICE:Social-socila mobility
------Emperor Wu Di established an imperial academy where potential officials were trained as scholars and immersed in Chinese classical texts dealing with history,literature,art,and mathematics,with an emphasis on Confucian teachings. Students enrolled were by then subjected to a series of written examiniations to select officials of various grades.
Yellow Turban peasant revoltSPICE: Political-revolts
------- Conditions in China like the growth of large landowning families with huge estates enabled them to avoid paying taxes and turning free peasants into impoverished tenant farmers led to major peasant revolts.
Founding of ConstantinopleSPICE: Political
--------The Roman Emperor Constantine,who became a Christian during his reign,established a new capital,Constantinople, on the site of an ancient Greek city called Byzantium.
Period: 600 to 1450
Time period 3-Regional and Interregional InteractionsLarge empires, often rooted in revivals of core and foundational cultures that had developed in earlier history, emerged after 600 C.E.
The hijraSPICE:Interaction and Culture- emigration,religion
-------Muhammad and his small band of followers emigrated to the more welcoming town of Yathrib,soon to be called Medina, the city of the Prophet. The emigration to Yathrib,known in Arabic as the hijra, was a momentous turning point in the early history of Islam and thereafter marked the beginning of a new Islamic calendar.
Reign of empress WuSPICE:Political-leadership
---------Empress Wu was a former high-ranking concubine in the imperial court,who came to power amid much palace intrigue and was the only women ever to rule China with the title of emperor.
------Leo III instituted a controversial policy of iconclasm, the practice of opposing the veneration of religious images and icons.(726-843)
The University of ConstantinopleSPICE:Culture-education
------ It was founded in 850, many of its students were trained for service in the vast Byzantine bureaucracy,while others foused on copying the classical writings from Ancient Greece and Rome.
Vietnam establishes independency from ChinaSPICE:Political-independency
-------- The weakening of the tang dynasty in the early tenth century C.E finally enabled a particularly large rebellion to establish Vietnam as a separate state.
Kiev converts to christianitySPICE:Political and cultural-conversian with france-religion
--------The Byzantine Empire sent missionaries to convert the people of Kievan Rus to Orthodox Christianity,the Kievan Rus ruler,Prince Vladimir I married the sister of the Byzantine emperor and agred to convert to Orthodox Christianity and to force his subjects to as well.
The Great SchismSPICE: Political-political division
-----The Christian Church experienced a division and split into two branches: the Roman Catholic and the Orthodox.
Crusades BeginSPICE: Political and cultural
------ Crusades were launched by the Catholic pope against the forces of islam to recover "The Holy Land".
Crusades sack ConstantinopleSPICE:Political and Cultural-conflict/war-religion
----------During the fourth Crusade in 1204, western forces seized and looted Constantinople and ruled Byzantium for the next half century.(Brutal they were).
The Black DeathSPICE: Interactions-disease
------- The Black Death was a pandemic in the 14th century that originated in Central Asia and spread across the trade routes of the vast Mogol Empire killing enormous numbers of the population in China, the Islamic world, and Europe as well as in the steppes lands of the nomads.
Period: 1450 to
Time Period 4-Global InteractionsThe voyage by Christopher Columbus in 1492 that connected the Eastern and Western Hemispheres transformed the world.The technological innovations,such as the astrolable and improved ship designs,that made Columbus's voyage successful also promoted transoceanic trade between Europe,Africa,and Asia.The expansion of global trade reshaped relationships among classes.Better transportation increased trade,which resulted in new states. A great stimulation of the arts was present.
First Translantic Voyage of ColumbusSPICE:Interactions
------Christopher Columbus,funded by Spain,Portugal's neighbor and rival,made his way west across the Atlantic hoping to arrive in the East and,in one of history's most consequential mistakes, ran into the Americas.
The Treaty of TordesillasSPICE:Political-political lines and seperations
------Spain and Portugal divided the Americas between them,with Spain reserving all lands to the west of a meridian that went through eastern South America while Portugal reserved all lands east of this north-south line.
Vasco da Gama enters Indian ocean and reaches IndiaSPICE:Interaction
------Vasco da Gama launched a voyage that took him around the tip of South Africa,along the East African coast,and,with the help of a Muslim pilot,across the Indian Ocean to Calicut in southern India.
The Atlantic Slave TradeSPICE:Economic-Distribution(trade and commerce)
-----This trade in humankind took an estimated 12.5 million people from African societies,shipped them across the Atlantic in the infamous Middle Passage, and deposited some 10.7 million of them in the Americas,where they lived out their often brief lives as slaves.
Magellan's Voyage (first circumnavigation of the globe)SPICE: Interaction
-----Ferdinand Magellan and his spanish ships became the first to circumnavigate the globe proving definitively that the earth was round and could be circumnavigated.(1520-1523)
Battle of LepantoSPICE: Political-conflict/war
-----After Suleiman's death,a European force made up mostly of Spaniards and Venetians defeated the Otomans in a great naval conflict known as the Battle of Lepanto.
The writing of "Journey to the West"SPICE: Culture-Art and Literature
---- published in the 16th century in China, recounts the story of monk Xuanzang and his pilgrimage to India in search of sacred scriptures that will help enlighten the people of China, the "Journey to the West" used Buddhist,Daoist,and Confusian symbolism in the format of a novel.
The Thirty Years WarSPICE:Political-conflict/war
------The final great religious war between Catholics and Protestants in Europe which led to economic catastrophe for most of the continent but culiminated in the Peace of Westphalia.(1618-1648)
The English Civil WarSPICE:Political-conflict/war-revolution
------The English Cival War was between supporters of the Stuart monarchy and supporters of Parliment over what powers Parliment should have in relation to those of the monarch.
The Ottoman siege of ViennaSPICE:Political-war
-----150,000 Ottoman troops laid siege to Vienna, the capital of the Holy Roman Empire,he siege marked the beginning of the end of Turkish domination in eastern Europe.
Time period 5-Industrialization and Global IntegrationBeginning in the mid-eighteenth century,people began to build new and better machinery to replace human and animal power to perform work.Products of industrialization such as railroads,steamships,and telegraphs expanded global trade and communication networks. Even as countries such as russia and china were expanding their empires,a new form of political organization was emerging:the nation-state.Distributions caused by industrialization and political changes caused massive migrations.
The Steam EngineSPICE:Innovations-technology
------- The version of steam engine made by James Watt provided an inexpensive way to harness coal power to create steam, which in turn generated energy for machinery in textile factories.
American Decleration of IndependanceSPICE:Social and Political
------ The American Decleration of Independance whose proclamation was on July 4, 1776 was a result of the American Revolution struggle for independence from oppressive British rule.
The United States Constitution ratificationSPICE: Political-government
------The U.S Constitution,the oldest written constituion still in use in the world today and ratified by the states,created a republic with a bicameral legislature,an executive who was elected by the people through an Electoral College, and a judical branch.
The Haitian RevolutionSPICE: Political -revolution
------The Haitian Revolution was the largest and most successful slave rebellion in the Western Hemisphere and It is certainly the only servile uprising that led to the creation of an independent nation, Haiti.(1791-1804)
Interchangeable PartsSPICE: Innovations-technology
------Eli Whitney,who was best known for developing the cotton gin, created a system of interchangeable parts for manufacturing firearms for the U.S. military.
Wars of Spanish American IndependanceSPICE:Political and Social
------Latin American revolutions were a huge movement for independance, they brought independence to new states but offered little social change or political opportunity for the vast majority of people.(1810-1825)
Seneca Falls conventionSPICE: Social-rights,gender roles
-----The Seneca Falls convention in New York with 300 people who met to call for equality for women, was one political sign of feminism.
"The Communist Manifesto" publishedSPICE: Social-class structures
----Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels published a pamphlet that summarized their critique of capitalism and divided society into two basic classes: the proletariat and the bourgeoisie.
Completion of railroads in the United StatesSPICE:Economic-industrialization
----The construction of railroads,including the Transcontinental Railroad that connected the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, faciliated U.S. industrial growth.
The Abolition of SlaverySPICE: Social- freedom and rights
------Here a remarkable transformation occured in human affairs as slavery,widely practiced and little condemned since the beginning of civilization,lost its legitimacy and was largely ended.This is how the Atlantic Revolution played an important role.
Time Period 6-Accelerating Global Change and RealignmentsScientific research afer 1900 revolutionized how people thought,lived,and,interacted with nature.However,advances in technology and population growth intensified the human impact on the planet,resulting in air pollution,water pollution,deforstation, desertification,and global warming.The political order of the world in 1900 was dominated by a small number of countries in Europe,along with Russia,Japan, and the United States.
The HolocaustSPICE: Political -war /Revolution-mass killings
------The Outcome of World War 2 where the Nazi dream of ridding Germany of its Jewish population was implimented and from that emerged death camps where 6 million Jews perished in a technologically sophisticated form of mass murder.(1941-1945)
The Cuban Missle CrisisSPICE:Political-war/conflict
-------The Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev secretly deployed nuclear-tipped Soviet missiles to Cuba,believing that this would deter further U.S. action against Castro.(the arm race in nuclear weapons).
The Vietnam WarSPICE: Political- war/conflict
------The Vietnam War was a long, costly and divisive conflict that pitted the communist government of North Vietnam against South Vietnam and its principal ally, the United States. (1965-1973)
Collapse of the Soviet UnionSPICE:Political-Global structure and orginization
------A brief and unsuccessful attempt to restore the old order through a military coup in August 1991 triggered the end of the Soviet Union and its communist regime and the Soviet Union itself disintegrated into fifteen separate states, none of them governed by communists parties.
Attacks on World Trade CenterSPICE:Political-conflict
------On the morning of September 11, 2001, 19 terrorists from al-Qaeda hijacked four commercial airplanes, deliberately crashing two of the planes into the upper floors of the North and South towers of the World Trade Center complex.