The World Before the Great War

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    Splendid Isolation

    Bristish foreign policy and German foreign policy. Especially under Disraeli and start of Bismark's career. A country focuses on domestic affairs as opposed to international affects.
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    Spread of Industrialization

    Industrialization spreads from Europe to America
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    Otto Von Bismark

    Bismark is chancellor of Germnay until year 1890, was removed by Wilhelm 2. Created Germany's status as the new "giant"
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    Bismarck's foreign policy

    Isolate France. Geopolitics. Looked to keep peace and balance of power between European superpowers
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    A trois in a Europe of Five powers

    Bismarckian system. Bismark was allied with at least 2 of the five powers (Great Britain, France, Austria-Hungary, Russia, and Germany)
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    German/France relations

    Rivalry due to past Alsace Lorraine arguement. Germany's foreign policy under Bismarck focuses on isolation of France. Germany's main focus of attack, created in 1894, was to attack France. They went about this by going through Belgium. However, this caused British entry to war.
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    Disraeli

    British Prime minister. Geopolitics. What is best for MY nation? It leads to war. Calculations of power for national gain.
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    Dual Alliance

    Germany and Austria Hungary. Aid in case of attack by Russia
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    william Gladstone

    Conservative and Religious. "Christian Deceny and respect for human rights"j guided bristish foreign policy during his time. Public opinion played important role in his policy.
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    Triple Alliance

    Germany Austria-Hungary and Italy. Military allinace that keeps italy and austria hungary from fighting. Also Germany will aid Italy in case of attack by France.
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    Reinsurance Treaty

    Germany and Russia. If Germany fights with France, Russia will not get involved. Germany will avoid two front war at any cost. (Thus alliance with Russia)
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    Militarism

    A country prepares for war. Increased military spending, push for development of military technology, general support for goals and plans of military, influence of military leaderws on the political decisions of a nation.
    Deterence: the larger the military the less likely other countries will attack (conscription and propaganda)
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    The Balkans

    The largest ethnic group in balkans are the Slavs. This connects Russian nationalistic urge to the Balkans. Russia wants the Balkans. Austria-Hungary also wants the Balkans. Nationalists in the Balkans want to create different areas in the Balkans. Much of the Balkans has previously been part of the Ottoman empire
  • Franco-Russian alliance

    an economic and military alliance. France gives loans to Russia in time of need. Indebeted Russia. Involves Germany attacking either party of the alliance. Fighting will occur with German involvement.
  • Germany creates world policy

    early plans for WWI. Growth in the navy, and dual alliance with Austria-Hungary
  • Industrialization

    Economic power equals military power.
  • Britain allies with the White Dominion

    White Dominon (Canada New Zealand and Austrailia) Also Japan
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    Entente Cordiale

    Military alliance between Britain and France. Settled colonial diffrences over North Africa. eased tension between British and France. Informal. (1839: Britain agrees to defend the neutrality of Belgium: neutral landing base on continental Europe)
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    Russo-Japanes War

    Lost by Russia, and questioned the country's strength to other nations
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    Conference at Algeciras, Spain

    Conference at Algeciras, Spain resulted: questioning to French claims on Morroco. Therefore, French were pushed into a stronger relationship with Britain, who were in favor of imperialism in North Africa.
  • Dreadnought HMS

    revolutionary warship. Naval race between Germany and Britain begins due to the creation of this ship.
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    Liberal Party of Britain

    In power during this time, showed that people's opinion were against war, and elected socialist officials that are against war. (Freguson "Pity of War")
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    Triple Entente

    Britan France and Russia alliance system. Set top ass colonial diffrences in Persia, Tibet, and Afghanistan
  • Germany sends Panther

    Panther, Germany's gunboat, is sent to the port of Agadir
  • The Balkan League

    Alliance. Serbia, Bulgaria, Monte Negroe, and Greece.
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    Balkan wars

    1 Balkan War (Oct 1912): Turkey versus Balkan League. Turkey lost. Drove out of European positions. Lost everything. Lost status and posession. Bulgaria was supposed to get macedonia, however Serbia (with help from Greece) invaded Macedonia, causing the 2 Balkan war (June 1913) Bulgaria lost and had to secede territory to Serbia, Greece, and Romania
  • The treaty of Bucharest

    Secession of the Macedonian land to Serbia, Greece, and Romania.
  • Franz Ferdinand

    Ferdinand killed by Phillipe (Black Hand) acts as catalyst for war. (A-H sees opprotunity to crush Serbian nationalism)
  • Ulitimatum from A-H to Serbia

    A-H gave ultimatum to Serbia demanding the surpression of all anti Austrian propaganda or organizations and to dismiss any officials to whom the Vienna governement might object. Serbia agrees to VIRTUALLY everything. A-H still decides to attack Serbia.
  • July Crisis

    Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia.
  • Russian Partial Mobilization

    Russia partially mobilizes (gets troops together) to make france amiable.
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    Germany makes three fateful demands

    July 31: Germany demands suspension of all Russian mobilization. Also, Germany wants a formal declaration of neutrality from France along with Toule and Verdun) Neither Russia nor France agrees.
    Aug 1: Germany declares war on Russia
    Aug 3: Germany declares war on France