The Netherlands

  • Jan 1, 1579

    Dutch Republic

    The Dutch Republic became independent in 1579 by breaking away from a larger Netherlands ruled by Spain.
  • Jan 1, 1579

    They developed new methods of crop rotation to work their lands more efficiently.

  • The Bourse

    The bourse, which was a stock exchange, opened up in Amsterdam. Along with the help from the Chamber of Insurance and the Bank of Amsterdam, it became the financial center of Europe.
  • Ships

    By the 1600s, the Dutch were sailing as many as 10,000 ships and dominated the shipping of Northern Europe.
  • Trade in Europe

    Around the 1600s, the Dutch brought from the Baltic timber and grain to Amsterdam and Western Europe. In exchange, from Portugal, Spain, and France they carried salt, oil, wool, wine, and the silver and gold of the New World.
  • Technology

    Around the 1600s, the Dutch established one of the largest textile industries in Europe based off of wool from their sheep along with wool exports from England.
    They also establsihed a large fishing industry.
  • Dutch East India Company

    A dutch businessmen founded this company that was dedicated to trade in Asia.
  • Amboina

    After the Dutch seized Amboina in the Moluccas, they were able to enfore their economic presence in Europe.
  • Americas

    The Dutch captured the sugar producing region of Northeast Brazil, and transported the sugar back to the Netherlands.
  • Africa

    The Dutch entered Africa to gain access to their gold on the Guinea coast, and to enter the slave trade to the Americas.
  • Japan

    The Dutch were the only Europeans allowed to engage in trade with Japan because they didn't send out missionaries.
  • Warfare

    After the English Navigation Act of 1651, Dutch shipping in England was restricted. Wars followed, as well as warfare against France that exhausted the Dutch resources.
  • Cape of Good Hope

    The Dutch captured the Cape of Good Hope from the Portuguese at the Southern tip of Africa and established the first settlement of Afrikaners, which were South Africans of Dutch descent.